Volume 5, Issue 2 (6-2023)                   JAD 2023, 5(2): 33-45 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Roy P, Das A, Uddin M A, Biswas J K. Sexual dimorphism in external morphology and pelvis of the lesser bandicoot rat, Bandicota bengalensis (Gray, 1835) (Mammalia: Rodentia: Muridae). JAD 2023; 5 (2) :33-45
URL: http://jad.lu.ac.ir/article-1-297-en.html
1- Department of Zoology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Chittagong, Chattogram-4331, Bangladesh
2- Department of Zoology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Chittagong, Chattogram-4331, Bangladesh , jadabbiswas@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (2835 Views)
We used linear morphometric measurements to assess secondary sexual dimorphism in the external traits and pelvis of the lesser bandicoot rat, Bandicota bengalensis (Gray). Multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant difference between the sexes in both external (Wilks' lambda = 0.542, F = 3.378, P < 0.05) and pelvis measurements (Wilks' lambda = 0.238, F = 10.05, P < 0.05). Males were larger than females in most of the external traits. In contrast, females were larger in most variables of the pelvis. Separation between the sexes was also demonstrated in the discriminant analysis. Although allometric slopes did not differ between the sexes, means adjusted for allometry were sexually dimorphic in five out of seven variables of the pelvis. In conclusion, our results revealed differential patterns of secondary sexual dimorphism for the external morphology and pelvis in B. bengalensis. These patterns are explained with respect to the accessible evolutionary theories on mammalian sexual dimorphism.
Full-Text [PDF 1331 kb]   (911 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original Research Article | Subject: Species Diversity
Received: 2023/05/26 | Accepted: 2023/08/22 | Published: 2023/09/6

1. Andersson, M. (1994). Sexual selection. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, USA. 624 pp. [DOI:10.1515/9780691207278]
2. Aplin, K. P., Brown, P. R., Jacob, J., Krebs, C. J. and Singleton, G. R. (2003). Field methods for rodent studies in Asia and the Indo-Pacific. ACIAR Monograph 100, ACIAR, Canberra, Australia. 223 pp.
3. Baker, R. H. (1968). Habitat and distribution, In: King, J. A. (Ed.), Biology of Peromyscus (Rodentia). Special Publication 2. The American Society of Mammalogists. pp. 98-126.
4. Balciauskiene, L. and Balciauskas, L. (2016). Pelvis of the striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius (Pallas, 1771): Sexual dimorphism and relation to body weight. North-Western Journal of Zoology, 12 (1): 50-57.
5. Berdnikovs, S., Bernstein, M., Metzler, A. and German, R. Z. (2007). Pelvic growth: ontogeny of size and shape sexual dimorphism in rat pelvis. Journal of Morphology, 268 (1): 12-22. [DOI:10.1002/jmor.10476] [PMID]
6. Biswas, J. K. and Motokawa, M. (2019). Morphological analysis of static skull variation in the large Japanese field mouse, Apodemus speciosus (Rodentia: Muridae). Mammal Study, 44 (1): 51-63. [DOI:10.3106/ms2018-0033]
7. Biswas, J. K., Oshida, T. and Motokawa, M. (2020). Sexual dimorphism and variability of craniomandibular morphology in the Japanese giant flying squirrel, Petaurista Leucogenys (Rodentia: Sciuridae). Zoologischer Anzeiger, 285: 1-11. [DOI:10.1016/j.jcz.2020.01.003]
8. Blanford, W. T. (1891). The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma (Mammalia). Taylor and Francis, Red Lion Court, Fleet Street, London. 617 pp. [DOI:10.5962/bhl.title.100745]
9. Brooks, J. E., Sultana, P. and Poche, R. M. (1985). Damage by Bandicota bengalensis to growing wheat in Bangladesh and methods of control. Acta Zoologica Fennica, 173: 135-137.
10. Carleton, M. D. and Musser, G. G. (1989). Systematic studies of Oryzomyine rodents (Muridae: Sigmodontinae): A synopsis of Microryzomys. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 191: 1-83.
11. Chakma, S. (2009). Bandicota bengalensis, In: Ahmed, A. T. A., Kabir, S. M. H., Ahmad, M., Ahmed, Z. U., Begum, Z. N. T., Hassan, M. A. and Khondker, M. (Eds.), Encyclopedia of flora and fauna of Bangladesh. Mammals. Volume 27. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh. pp. 46-47.
12. Claude, J. (2008). Morphometrics with R. Springer Science and Business Media, New York, USA. 316 pp.
13. Coker, O. M., Jubril, A. J., Isong, O. M. and Omonona, A. O. (2020). Internal and external morphometry of thomas's rope squirrel (Funisciurus anerythrus) and gambian sun squirrel (Heliosciurus gambianus) in Ibadan, Nigeria. Animal Research International, 17 (2): 3747-3760.
14. Crook, J. H. (1972). Sexual selection, dimorphism, and social organization in the primates, In: Campbell, B.G. (Ed.), Sexual selection and the descent of Man. IL Aldine, Chicago, USA. pp. 180-230.
15. Dice, L. R. (1940). Ecologic and genetic variability within species of Peromyscus. The American Naturalist, 74 (752): 212-221. [DOI:10.1086/280889]
16. Dunmire, W. W. (1955). Sex dimorphism in the pelvis of rodents. Journal of Mammalogy, 36 (3): 356-361. [DOI:10.2307/1375677]
17. Ellerman, J. R. (1961). The Fauna of India including Pakistan, Burma and Ceylon. Mammalia. Rodentia. Volume 3. Second Edition. Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta, India. 884 pp.
18. Fernandez-Arjona, M., Grondona, J. M., Granados-Durán, P., Fernández-Llebrez, P. and Lopez-Avalos, M. (2017). Microglia morphological categorization in a rat model of neuroinflammation by hierarchical cluster and principal components analysis. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, 11: 235 pp. [DOI:10.3389/fncel.2017.00235] [PMID] [PMCID]
19. Fulk, G. W., Smiet, A. C. and Khokhar, A. R. (1981). Movements of Bandicota bengalensis and Nesokia indica in rice fields in Sind. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 78 (1): 107-112.
20. Gannon, W. L., Sikes, R. S. and The Animal Care and Use Committee of the American Society of Mammalogists. (2007). Guidelines of the American Society of Mammalogists for the use of wild mammals in research. Journal of Mammalogy, 88: 809-823. [DOI:10.1644/06-MAMM-F-185R1.1]
21. Gardner, W. U. (1936). Sexual dimorphism of the pelvis of the mouse, the effect of estrogenic hormones upon the pelvis and upon the development of scrotal hernias. American Journal of Anatomy, 59 (3): 459-483. [DOI:10.1002/aja.1000590307]
22. Gliwicz, J. (1988). Sexual dimorphism in small mustelids: Body diameter limitation. Oikos, 53: 411-414. [DOI:10.2307/3565544]
23. Gray, J. E. (1835). Illustrations of Indian zoology: chiefly selected from the collection of Major General Hardwicke, F. R. S., Volume II. Adolphus Richter and Co., London. 102 pp.
24. Hammer, Ø., Harper, D. A. T. and Ryan, P. D. (2001). PAST: Paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica, 4 (1): 1-9.
25. Hossain, M. A. and Khalequzzaman, M. (2000). Rice and wheat texture preference by the lesser bandicoot rat, Bandicota bengalensis (Gray) in captivity. University Journal of Zoology Rajshahi University, 19: 1-5.
26. Iguchi, T., Fukazawa, Y. and Bern, H. A. (1995). Effects of sex hormones on oncogene expression in the vagina and on development of sexual dimorphism of the pelvis and anococcygeus muscle in the mouse. Environmental Health Perspective, 103 (7): 79-82. [DOI:10.1289/ehp.95103s779] [PMID] [PMCID]
27. Issac, J. L. (2005). Potential causes and life-history consequences of sexual size dimorphism in mammals. Mammal Review, 35 (1): 101-115. [DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2907.2005.00045.x]
28. IUCN Bangladesh. (2015). Red List of Bangladesh: Mammals. Volume 2. IUCN, International :union: for Conservation of Nature, Bangladesh Country Office, Dhaka, Bangladesh. 124 pp.
29. Kaur, P. and Guraya, S. S. (1983). Body weight, sex ratio and seasonal reproductive changes in the Indian mole rat, Bandicota bengalensis in the Punjab. Australian Journal of Zoology, 31 (2): 123−130. [DOI:10.1071/ZO9830123]
30. Kent, D. S. (2010). The external morphology of Austroplatypus incompertus (Schedl) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Platypodinae). ZooKeys, 56 (56): 121-140. [DOI:10.3897/zookeys.56.521] [PMID] [PMCID]
31. Khairuddin, N. L., Raghazli, R., Sah, S. A., Shafie, N. J. and Azman, N. M. (2011). The population size of the Lesser Bandicoot (Bandicota bengalensis) in Three Markets in Penang, Malaysia. Tropical Life Sciences Research, 22 (2): 81-92.
32. Khalequzzaman, M. and Hossain, M. A. (1999). Some morphometric relationship and population density of the lesser bandicoot rat, Bandicota bengalensis (Gray) in a store house. Journal of Bio-Science, 7: 31-34.
33. Khan, M. M. H. (2008). Protected Areas of Bangladesh: a guide to wildlife. Nishorgo Program, Wildlife Management and Nature Conservation Circle, Bangladesh Forest Department, Dhaka, Bangladesh. 304 pp.
34. Krystufek, B. (1998). Intersexual and interpopulation variability in the pelvis (os coxae) of the European souslik, Spermophilus citellus. Folia Zoologica, 47: 81-91.
35. Kryštufek, B., Janžekovič, F., Hutterer, R. and Klenovšek, T. (2016). Morphological evolution of the skull in closely related bandicoot rats: a comparative study using geometric morphometrics. Hystrix, the Italian Journal of Mammalogy, 27 (2): 163-169.
36. Kuncova, P. and Frynta, D. (2009). Interspecific morphometric variation in the postcranial skeleton in the genus Apodemus. Belgian Journal of Zoology, 139 (2): 133-146.
37. Lammers, A. R., Dziech, H. A. and German, R. Z. (2001). Ontogeny of sexual dimorphism in Chinchilla lanigera (Rodentia: Chinchillidae). Journal of Mammalogy, 82 (1): 179-189. [DOI:10.1093/jmammal/82.1.179]
38. Leutenegger, W. (1974). Functional aspects of pelvic morphology in simian primates. Journal of Human Evolution, 3 (3): 207-222. [DOI:10.1016/0047-2484(74)90179-1]
39. Matysiak, A., Malecha, A. W., Jakubowski, H., Sadawska, E. T., Koteja, P. and Tryjanowski, P. (2017). Sexual dimorphism, asymmetry, and the effect of reproduction on pelvis bone in the bank vole, Myodes glareolus. Mammal Research, 62 (3): 297-306. [DOI:10.1007/s13364-017-0317-1]
40. Mcpehrson, F. J. and Chenoweth, P. J. (2012). Mammalian sexual dimorphism. Animal Reproduction Science, 131 (3): 109-122. [DOI:10.1016/j.anireprosci.2012.02.007] [PMID]
41. Motokawa, M., Lin, L. K. and Motokawa, J. (2003). Morphological comparison of Ryukyu mouse Mus caroli (Rodentia: Muridae) populations from Okinawajima and Taiwan. Zoological Studies, 42 (2): 258-267.
42. Musser, G. G. and Brothers, E. M. (1994). Identification of bandicoot rats from Thailand (Bandicota, Muridae, Rodentia). American Museum Novitates, 3110: 1-56.
43. Nandini, R. (2011). Evolution of sexual size dimorphism in squirrels. Ph.D. thesis. Auburn University, Baltimore, USA.
44. Onwuama, K. T., Salami, S. O., Ali, M. and Nzalak, J. O. (2012). Effects of different methods of bone preparation on the skeleton of the African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus). International Journal of Morphology, 30 (2): 425-427. [DOI:10.4067/S0717-95022012000200011]
45. Pacheco, V. (2019). A capture of a lesser bandicoot rat Bandicota bengalensis (Rodentia, Muridae) at Callao Port, Perú: anecdotal record or potential invasive alien species? Revista Peruana de Biologia, 26 (4): 525-528. [DOI:10.15381/rpb.v26i4.16881]
46. Parés-Casanova, P. M. (2017). Introductory Chapter - morphometric studies: beyond pure anatomical form analysis, In: Parés-Casanova, P. M. (Ed.), New insights into morphometry studies. [DOI:10.5772/intechopen.69682] [PMID] [PMCID]
47. Parker, G. A. (1992). The evolution of sexual size dimorphism in fish. Journal of Fish Biology, 41: 1-20. [DOI:10.1111/j.1095-8649.1992.tb03864.x]
48. Parrack, D. W. and Thomas, J. (1970). The behaviour of the lesser bandicoot rat, Bandicota bengalensis (Gray). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 67: 67-80.
49. Pimsai, U., Pearch, M. J., Satasook, C., Bumrungsri, S. and Bates, P. J. J. (2014). Murine rodents (Rodentia: Murinae) of the Myanmar-Thai-Malaysian peninsula and Singapore: taxonomy, distribution, ecology, conservation status, and illustrated identification keys. Bonn zoological Bulletin, 63 (1): 15-114.
50. Prevosti, F. J. and Lamas, L. (2006). Variation of cranial and dental measurements and dental correlations in the pampean fox (Dusicyon gymnocercus). Journal of Zoology, 270 (4): 636-649. [DOI:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2006.00187.x]
51. Ralls, K. (1977). Sexual dimorphism in mammals: avian models and unanswered questions. The American Naturalist, 111 (981): 917-938. [DOI:10.1086/283223]
52. Ramírez-Portilla, C., Bieger, I. M., Belleman, R. G., Wilke, T., Flot, J-F., Baird, A. H., Harii, S., Sinniger, F. and Kaandorp, J. A. (2022). Quantitative three-dimensional morphological analysis supports species discrimination in complex-shaped and taxonomically challenging corals. Frontiers in Marine Science, 9: 955582. [DOI:10.3389/fmars.2022.955582]
53. Rao, N. S., Rao, A. M. K. M., Tripathi, R. S., Kishore, M. N., Anusha, S. B. and Kumar, A. A. (2019). Bio-ecology of lesser bandicoot rat, Bandicota bengalensis Gray & Hardwicke. Technical Bulletin Number 3, Regional Agricultural Research Station, Maruteru, India. 31 pp.
54. Reyment, R. A. (2010). Morphometrics: a historical essay, In: Elewa, A. M. T (Ed.), Morphometrics for Nonmorphometricians. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, Germany. pp. 9-24. [DOI:10.1007/978-3-540-95853-6_2]
55. Ridley, M. (1995). Brief communication: pelvic sexual dimorphism and relative neonatal brain size really are related. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 97 (2): 197-200. [DOI:10.1002/ajpa.1330970209] [PMID]
56. Rommel, S. and Reynolds, J. E. (2009). Skeleton, postcranial, In: Perrin, W. F., Würsig, B. and Thewissen, J. G. M. (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Second Edition. Academic Press, USA. pp. 1021-1033. [DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-373553-9.00238-8]
57. Schulte-Hostedde, A. I. (2007). Sexual size dimorphism in rodents, In: Wolff, J. and Sherman, P. (Eds.), Rodent societies: an ecological and evolutionary perspective. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA. pp. 115-128.
58. Schulte-Hostedde, A. I. and Millar, J. S. (2000). Measuring sexual size dimorphism in the yellow-pine chipmunk (Tamias amoenus). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 78 (5): 728-733. [DOI:10.1139/z00-005]
59. Schulte-Hostedde, A. I., Millar, J. S. and Hicklin, G. J. (2001). Sexual dimorphism in body composition of small mammals. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 79 (6): 1016-1020. [DOI:10.1139/z01-076]
60. Schultz, A. H. (1949). Sex differences in the pelves of primates. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 7: 401-424. [DOI:10.1002/ajpa.1330070307] [PMID]
61. Schutz, H., Polly, P. D., Krieger, J. D. and Guralnick, R. P. (2009). Differential sexual dimorphism: size and shape in the cranium and pelvis of grey foxes (Urocyon). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 96: 339-353. [DOI:10.1111/j.1095-8312.2008.01132.x]
62. Shine, R. (1989). Ecological causes for the evolution of sexual dimorphism: A review of the evidence. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 64 (4): 419-461. [DOI:10.1086/416458] [PMID]
63. Shintaku, Y., Kageyama, M. and Motokawa, M. (2010). Differential growth patterns in two seasonal cohorts of the large Japanese field mouse Apodemus speciosus. Journal of Mammalogy, 91: 1168-1177. [DOI:10.1644/09-MAMM-A-305.1]
64. Shintaku, Y., Kageyama, M. and Motokawa, M. (2012). Morphological variation in external traits of the large Japanese field mouse, Apodemus speciosus. Mammal Study, 37: 113-126. [DOI:10.3106/041.037.0202]
65. Shoma, S. F., Feeroz, M. M. and Hasan, M. K. (2015). Morphometry of Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus) in Jahangirnagar university campus. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology, 43 (2): 313-319. [DOI:10.3329/bjz.v43i2.27401]
66. Singh, C. D., Asem, I., Singh, N. B., Laishram, J. M. and Singh, C. B. (2011). Biodiversity of rat species in Manipur. International Journal of Environment and Biodiversity, 2 (2): 23-26.
67. Singh, P. and Sangha, G. K. (2015). Morphometric analysis of male and female rats inhabiting South-West region of Punjab in North India. Indian Journal of Ecology, 42 (1): 65-68.
68. Slice, D. E. (2007). Geometric morphometrics. Annual Review of Anthropology, 36 (1): 261-281. [DOI:10.1146/annurev.anthro.34.081804.120613]
69. Smartt, R. A. and Lemen, C. (1980). Intrapopulational morphological variation as a predictor of feeding behavior in deermice. The American Naturalist, 116 (6): 891-894. [DOI:10.1086/283679]
70. Smith, R. J. (1999). Statistics of sexual size dimorphism. Journal of Human Evolution, 36: 423-459. [DOI:10.1006/jhev.1998.0281] [PMID]
71. Sridhara, S. (1986). Size- dependent and sex- dependent social interactions of the lesser bandicoot rat Bandicota bengalensis. Journal of Bombay Natural History Society, 83: 317-326.
72. Székely, T., Lislevand, T. and Figuerola, J. (2007). Sexual size dimorphism in birds, In: Fairbairn, D. J., Blanckenhorn, W. U. and Székely, T. (Eds.). Sex, size and gender roles: evolutionary studies of sexual size dimorphism. Oxford University Press, USA. pp. 27-37. [DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199208784.003.0004]
73. Tague, R. G. (2005). Big-bodied males help us recognize that females have big pelves. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 127 (4): 392-405. [DOI:10.1002/ajpa.20226] [PMID] [PMCID]
74. Uesugi, Y., Taguchi, O., Noumura, T. and Iguchi, T. (1992). Effects of sex steroids on the development of sexual dimorphism in mouse innominate bone. The Anatomical Record, 234 (4): 541-548. [DOI:10.1002/ar.1092340409] [PMID]
75. Voss, R. S. and Marcus, L. F. (1992). Morphological evolution in muroid rodents II. Craniometric factor divergence in seven Neotropical genera, with experimental results from Zygodontomys. Evolution, 46 (6): 1918-1934. [DOI:10.1111/j.1558-5646.1992.tb01178.x] [PMID]
76. Wang, G. (2017). Sexual size dimorphism of group-living Mongolian gerbils Meriones unguicutalus (Muridae: Gerbillinae). The European Zoological Journal, 84 (1): 536-540. [DOI:10.1080/24750263.2017.1387942]
77. Weckerly, F. W. (1998). Sexual size dimorphism: influence of mass and mating systems in the most dimorphism mammals. Journal of Mammalogy, 79 (1): 33-52. [DOI:10.2307/1382840]
78. Xia, X. and Millar, J. S. (1987). Morphological variation in deer mice in relation to sex and habitat. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 65 (3): 527-533. [DOI:10.1139/z87-082]
79. Zelditch, M. L., Swiderski, D. L. and Sheets, H. D. (2004). Geometric morphometrics for biologists: a primer. MA: Elsevier Academic Press, Boston, USA. 443 pp.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

  | Journal of Animal Diversity

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb