Volume 5, Issue 4 (In Press 2023)                   JAD 2023, 5(4): 1-14 | Back to browse issues page


XML Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Parajuli A, Basyal C R, Baral M, Adhikari H, Yadav S K, Basnet J B et al . Status, patterns, and trends of human-wildlife conflict in the buffer zone of Chitwan National Park, Nepal. JAD 2023; 5 (4) :1-14
URL: http://jad.lu.ac.ir/article-1-397-en.html
1- Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry, Hetauda Campus, Makwanpur 44107, Nepal
2- Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry, Pokhara Campus, Pokhara 33700, Nepal
3- Forest Nepal, Amar Marg 88, Butwal, C3534, Nepal
4- Department of Food and Resource Economics, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 23, 1958 Frederiksberg C, 1165 Copenhagen, Denmark
5- Department of Food and Resource Economics, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 23, 1958 Frederiksberg C, 1165 Copenhagen, Denmark , sachintimilsina66@gmail.com
Abstract:   (2474 Views)
Human-wildlife conflicts (HWC) are common in locations where human settlements and wildlife ecosystems intersect. Conflict between people and wildlife is a significant conservation issue that is challenging to resolve. Therefore, this research aims to reveal the trends, status, and patterns of HWC in the Buffer Zone (BZ) of Chitwan National Park (CNP) from July 2012 to July 2021. Primary data were collected through household surveys, key informant interviews (KIIs), direct observation, and secondary data from park offices, the Buffer Zone User Committee (BZUC), and institutions through reports, documents, and booklets. Our study shows crop raiding was the most common and notable problem, followed by livestock depredation, with 4416 documented cases. According to the report, elephants are the biggest conflict-causing species, accounting for 37.86% of overall losses. HWC occurrences peaked in 2018, accounting for 23.41% of total incidents from July 2012 to July 2021. During the research period, victims of HWC received compensation totaling ~0.805 million US dollars (106641196.00 Nepalese rupees). Autumn is identified as the greatest season for HWC, owing to paddy harvesting, which draws animals. Most people believe that the population density of wildlife increases in the park due to positive human participation. By adopting a participatory management approach to conservation, the park has the potential to increase the number of locals who benefit from it significantly.
Full-Text [PDF 3842 kb]   (285 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original Research Article | Subject: Ecological Diversity
Received: 2023/09/30 | Accepted: 2023/12/25 | Published: 2023/12/31

References
1. Acharya, K. P., Paudel, P. K., Neupane, P. R. and Köhl, M. (2016). Human-wildlife conflicts in Nepal: patterns of human fatalities and injuries caused by large mammals. PLoS ONE, 11 (9): e0161717. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0161717] [PMID] []
2. Akampulira, E., Bitariho, R. and Mugerwa, B. (2015). An assessment of the effectiveness of Nkuringo Buffer Zone in mitigating crop raiding incidences around Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, SW Uganda. Institute of Tropical Forest Conservation, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Uganda.
3. Angelici, F. M. (2016). Problematic wildlife at the beginning of the twenty-first century: Introduction, In: Angelici, F. M. (Ed.), Problematic wildlife. A Cross-Disciplinary Approach. Springer, Cham, UK. pp. 3-18. [DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-22246-2_1]
4. Bangs, E. E., Fritts, S. H., Fontaine, J. A., Smith, D. W., Murphy, K. M., Mack, C. M. and Niemeyer, C. C. (1998). Status of gray wolf restoration in Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 26: 785-798.
5. Baral, K., Bhandari, S., Adhikari, B., Kunwar, R. M., Sharma, H. P., Aryal, A. and Ji, W. (2022). Anthropogenic mortality of large mammals and trends of conflict over two decades in Nepal. Ecology and Evolution, 12 (10): e9381. [DOI:10.1002/ece3.9381] [PMID] []
6. Baral, K., Sharma, H. P., Kunwar, R., Morley, C., Aryal, A., Rimal, B. and Ji, W. (2021). Human wildlife conflict and impacts on livelihood: A study in community forestry system in mid-hills of Nepal. Sustainability, 13 (23): 13170. [DOI:10.3390/su132313170]
7. Bhandari, A., Bagale, S., Silwal, T. and Paudel, M. (2020). Spatio-temporal patterns of wildlife attacks on humans in Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Scientific Reports in Life Sciences 1: 1-20. [DOI:10.22034/sris.2020.44861]
8. Bista, R. and Song, C. (2022). Human-wildlife conflict in the community forestry landscape: a case study from two Middle Hill districts of Nepal. Human dimensions of wildlife, 27 (6): 554-570. [DOI:10.1080/10871209.2021.1980158]
9. Braczkowski, A. R., O'Bryan, C. J., Lessmann, C., Rondinini, C., Crysell, A. P., Gilbert, S. and Biggs, D. (2023). The unequal burden of human-wildlife conflict. Communications Biology, 6 (1): 182. [DOI:10.1038/s42003-023-04493-y] [PMID] []
10. Budhathoki, P. (2004). Linking communities with conservation in developing countries: Buffer zone management initiatives in Nepal. Oryx, 38 (3): 334-341. [DOI:10.1017/S0030605304000584]
11. Carter, N. H., Shrestha, B. K., Karki, J. B., Pradhan, N. M. B. and Liu, J. (2012). Coexistence between wildlife and humans at fine spatial scales. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109 (38): 15360-15365. [DOI:10.1073/pnas.1210490109] [PMID] []
12. Chaudhary, A., Timilsina, S., Gautam, S. and Subedi, P. B. (2021). An assessment of the Human-Elephant conflict in Sapahi and Kakadi Village of Kolhabi Municipality, Bara, Nepal. Our Nature, 19 (1): 27-36. [DOI:10.3126/on.v19i1.41223]
13. Chitwan National Park CNP (2013). Annual Report of Fiscal Year 2012/13. Chitwan National Park Kasara, Chitwan Office, Nepal.
14. Chitwan National Park CNP (2017). Chitwan National Park and buffer zone tourism plan 2017-2022. Chitwan, Nepal: Retrieved from Chitwan National Park Office. Retrieved from https://www.chitwannationalpark.gov.np/index.php/document-repository/publications-chitwan-national-par k/49-chitwan-tourism-plan-final-2074/file
15. Conover, M. R. (2001). Resolving human-wildlife conflicts: the science of wildlife damage management. CRC press, Boca Raton. Lewis publishers, USA. 440 pp.
16. Dangol, D., Ghimire, A. and Bhattarai, S. B. (2020). Human-elephant conflict in the buffer zone of Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Nepalese Journal of Zoology, 4 (1): 36-43. [DOI:10.3126/njz.v4i1.30671]
17. Dhungana, R., Savini, T., Karki, J. B., Dhakal, M., Lamichhane, B. R. and Bumrungsri, S. (2018). Living with tigers Panthera tigris: patterns, correlates, and contexts of human-tiger conflict in Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Oryx, 52 (1): 55-65. [DOI:10.1017/S0030605316001587]
18. Distefano, E. (2005). Human-Wildlife Conflict worldwide: collection of case studies, analysis of management strategies and good practices. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development Initiative (SARDI), Rome, Italy. Available from: FAO Corporate Document repository www.fao.org/documents (Accessed 28 September 2023).
19. DNPWC (2020). Cervus duvauceli. Department of National Park and Wildlife Conservation http://dnpwc.gov.np/en/species-detail/71 (Accessed 28 September 2023).
20. Ghimire, S., Devkota, D., Dhakal, S. C. and Upreti, B. R. (2022). Major cereal crops damage by wildlife: a case study from Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Agriculture Development Journal, 16: 14-25. [DOI:10.3126/adj.v16i1.51617]
21. Goodrich, J. M. (2010). Human-tiger conflict: a review and call for comprehensive plans. Integrative Zoology, 5 (4): 300-312. [DOI:10.1111/j.1749-4877.2010.00218.x] [PMID]
22. Gross, E. M., Lahkar, B. P., Subedi, N., Nyirenda, V. R., Klebelsberg, E. and Jakoby, O. (2021). Elephants in the village: Causes and consequences of property damage in Asia and Africa. Conservation Science and Practice, 3 (2): e343. [DOI:10.1111/csp2.343]
23. Gulati, S., Karanth, K. K., Le, N. A. and Noack, F. (2021). Human casualties are the dominant cost of human-wildlife conflict in India. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118 (8): e1921338118. [DOI:10.1073/pnas.1921338118] [PMID] []
24. Gurung, B., Nelson, K. C. and Smith, J. L. (2009). Impact of grazing restrictions on livestock composition and husbandry practices in Madi Valley, Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Environmental Conservation, 36 (4): 338-347. [DOI:10.1017/S0376892910000160]
25. Gurung, B., Smith, J. L. D., McDougal, C., Karki, J. B. and Barlow, A. (2008). Factors associated with human-killing tigers in Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Biological Conservation, 141 (12): 3069-3078. [DOI:10.1016/j.biocon.2008.09.013]
26. Hudu, B., Shuvani, T., Nabin, B., Kandel, R. C., Sudarshan, C., Shankar, C., Niroj, T., Windhorst, K., Karky, B. S., Adhikari, M. D. and Pokheral, C. P. (2017). Mitigating human-wildlife conflict in Nepal: a case study of fences around Chitwan National Park. ICIMOD Working Paper. 30 pp.
27. Hudu, B., Shuvani, T., Nabin, B., Kandel, R. C., Sudarshan, C., Shankar, C. and Pokheral, C. P. (2017). Mitigating human-wildlife conflict in Nepal: a case study of fences around Chitwan National Park. ICIMOD Working Paper, (2017/14). www.ib.icimod.org (Accessed 28 September 2023).
28. Joshi, G., Neupane, B., Dahal, D., Shrestha, S., Dhakal, P., Jandug, C. M. B. and Gautam, D. (2020). Assessment of human-wildlife conflict in Kailali district of Nepal. Journal of Animal Diversity, 2 (3): 24-36. [DOI:10.29252/JAD.2020.2.3.5]
29. Kafle, K., Thanet, D. R., Poudel, P., Gautam, D., Thapa, G. and Bhatt, P. (2020). Status and conservation threats to large mammals of the Laljhadi Mohana Biological Corridor, Nepal. Journal of Animal Diversity, 2 (2): 16-33. [DOI:10.29252/JAD.2020.2.2.3]
30. Kandel, S., Silwal, T., Yadav, S. K. and Dhakal, S. (2023). Temporal and spatial pattern of wildlife attacks on human in Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Nepalese Journal of Zoology, 7 (1): 7-13. [DOI:10.3126/njz.v7i1.56305]
31. Karani, I. W., Dublin, H. T. and Koehler, G. M. (1995). Livestock depredation by predators in pastoral areas adjacent to Maasai Mara National Reserve, Kenya, In: Proceedings of the First International Wildlife Management Congress. Integrating People and Wildlife for a Sustainable Future. Bethseda, USA: The Wildlife Society. pp. 360-363.
32. Kissui, B. M. (2008). Livestock predation by lions, leopards, spotted hyenas, and their vulnerability to retaliatory killing in the Maasai steppe, Tanzania. Animal Conservation, 11 (5): 422-432. [DOI:10.1111/j.1469-1795.2008.00199.x]
33. König, H. J., Kiffner, C., Kramer‐Schadt, S., Fürst, C., Keuling, O. and Ford, A. T. (2020). Human-wildlife coexistence in a changing world. Conservation Biology, 34 (4):786-794. [DOI:10.1111/cobi.13513] [PMID]
34. Kothari, C. R. (2004). Research methodology: methods and techniques. Second Edition, New Age International Publishers, New Delhi. India. 418 pp.
35. Kurland, J., Pires, S. F., McFann, S. C. and Moreto, W. D. (2017). Wildlife crime: a conceptual integration, literature review, and methodological critique. Crime Science, 6 (1): 1-15. [DOI:10.1186/s40163-017-0066-0]
36. Lamarque, F., Anderson, J., Fergusson, R., Lagrange, M., Osei-Owusu, Y. and Bakker, L. (2009). Human wildlife conflict in Africa: causes, consequences and management strategies (No. 157). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Italy. 112 pp.
37. Lamichhane, B. R., Persoon, G. A., Leirs, H., Poudel, S., Subedi, N., Pokheral, C. P., Bhattarai, S., Thapaliya, B. P. and De Iongh, H. H. (2018). Spatio-temporal patterns of attacks on human and economic losses from wildlife in Chitwan National Park, Nepal. PloS ONE, 13 (4): e0195373. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0195373] [PMID] []
38. Lamichhane, B. R., Persoon, G. A., Leirs, H., Poudel, S., Subedi, N., Pokheral, C. P., Bhattarai, S., Gotame, P., Mishra, R. and De Iongh, H. H. (2019). Contribution of buffer zone programs to reduce human-wildlife impacts: the case of the Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Human Ecology, 47: 95-110. [DOI:10.1007/s10745-019-0054-y]
39. Laurie, A. (1982). Behavioural ecology of the Greater one‐horned rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis). Journal of Zoology, 196 (3): 307-341. [DOI:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1982.tb03506.x]
40. Lendelvo, S. M. (2020). A perfect storm? The impact of COVID-19 on community-based conservation in Namibia. www.hdl.handle.net/11070/3027 (Accessed 28 September 2023).
41. Madden, F. (2004). Creating Coexistence between humans and wildlife: global perspectives on local efforts to address human-wildlife conflict. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 9 (4): 247-257. [DOI:10.1080/10871200490505675]
42. Madhusudan, M. D. and Sankaran, P. (2010). Seeing the elephant in the room: human-elephant conflict and the ETF report. Economic and Political Weekly, 45 (49): 29-31.
43. Miller, J. R., Jhala, Y. V. and Jena, J. (2016). Livestock losses and hotspots of attack from tigers and leopards in Kanha Tiger Reserve, central India. Regional Environmental Change, 16: 17-29. [DOI:10.1007/s10113-015-0871-5]
44. Pandey, P., Shaner, P. J. L. and Sharma, H. P. (2016). The wild boar as a driver of human-wildlife conflict in the protected park lands of Nepal. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 62: 103-108. [DOI:10.1007/s10344-015-0978-5]
45. Pant, B., Sharma, H. P., Dahal, B. R., Regmi, S. and Belant, J. L. (2023). Spatio-temporal patterns of human-wildlife conflicts and effectiveness of mitigation in Shuklaphanta National Park, Nepal. PloS ONE, 18 (4): e0282654. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0282654] [PMID] []
46. Pant, G., Dhakal, M., Pradhan, N. M. B., Leverington, F. and Hockings, M. (2016). Nature and extent of human-elephant Elephas maximus conflict in central Nepal. Oryx, 50 (4): 724-731. [DOI:10.1017/S0030605315000381]
47. Pathak, B. (2023). Study of Human-Wildlife Conflict in Chitwan National Park and Buffer Zone People in Nepal. Integrated Journal for Research in Arts and Humanities, 3 (3): 17-25. [DOI:10.55544/ijrah.3.3.4]
48. Patterson, B. D., Kasiki, S. M., Selempo, E. and Kays, R. W. (2004). Livestock predation by lions (Panthera leo) and other carnivores on ranches neighboring Tsavo National Parks, Kenya. Biological Conservation, 119 (4): 507-516. [DOI:10.1016/j.biocon.2004.01.013]
49. Peterson, M. N., Birckhead, J. L., Leong, K., Peterson, M. J. and Peterson, T. R. (2010). Rearticulating the myth of human-wildlife conflict. Conservation Letters, 3 (2): 74-82. [DOI:10.1111/j.1755-263X.2010.00099.x]
50. Pratap, R., Rajeev, J., Bijaya, N., Bishow, P. andSujan, K. (2023). Attitude of people towards relief fund as human-wildlife conflict management strategy: a case study of Shivapuri-Nagarjun National Park, Nepal. Journal of Resources and Ecology, 14 (3): 604-615. [DOI:10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2023.03.015]
51. Primack, R. B., Paudel, P. K. and Bhattarai, B. P. (2013). Conservation biology: a primer for Nepal. Dreamland Publication, Kathmandu, Nepal. 432 pp.
52. Shahi, K., Khanal, G., Jha, R. R., Joshi, A. K., Bhusal, P. and Silwal, T. (2022). Characterizing damages caused by wildlife: learning from Bardia National Park, Nepal. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 27 (2): 173-182. [DOI:10.1080/10871209.2021.1890862]
53. Sharma, P., Chettri, N. and Wangchuk, K. (2021). Human-wildlife conflict in the roof of the world: understanding multidimensional perspectives through a systematic review. Ecology and Evolution, 11 (17): 11569-11586. [DOI:10.1002/ece3.7980] [PMID] []
54. Sharma, U. R. (1990). An overview of park-people interactions in Royal Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Landscape and Urban Planning, 19 (2): 133-144. [DOI:10.1016/0169-2046(90)90049-8]
55. Shova, T. and Hubacek, K. (2011). Drivers of illegal resource extraction: an analysis of Bardia National Park, Nepal. Journal of Environmental Management, 92 (1): 156-164. [DOI:10.1016/j.jenvman.2010.08.021] [PMID]
56. Silwal, T., Kolejka, J., Bhatta, B. P., Rayamajhi, S., Sharma, R. P. and Poudel, B. S. (2017). When, where and whom: assessing wildlife attacks on people in Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Oryx, 51 (2): 370-377. [DOI:10.1017/S0030605315001489]
57. Silwal, T., Shrestha, B. P., Bhatta, B. P. and Devkota, B. P. (2013). Revenue distribution pattern and park-people conflict in Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Banko Janakari, 23 (1): 35-41. [DOI:10.3126/banko.v23i1.9465]
58. Suryan, T., Raghav, G., Majumdar, A. and Tripathi, R. M. (2023). Global scenario on human-big cats interactions and coexistence patterns-a critical review. Journal of Animal Diversity, 5 (1): 92-107. [DOI:10.61186/JAD.5.1.92]
59. Treves, A. and Bruskotter, J. (2014). Tolerance for predatory wildlife. Science, 344 (6183): 476-477. [DOI:10.1126/science.1252690] [PMID]
60. Treves, A., Wallace, R. B. and White, S. (2009). Participatory planning of interventions to mitigate human-wildlife conflicts. Conservation Biology, 23 (6): 1577-1587. [DOI:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2009.01242.x] [PMID]
61. Treves, A., Wallace, R. B., Naughton-Treves, L. and Morales, A. (2006). Co-managing human-wildlife conflicts: a review. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 11 (6): 383-396. [DOI:10.1080/10871200600984265]
62. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). (2003). Initial management effectiveness evaluation report: Royal Chitwan National Park, Nepal, August 2003. Enhancing our heritage project: Monitoring and managing for success in natural world heritage sites. WII-UNESCO Project, Wildlife Institute of India. 88 pp.
63. Uprety, H. K. (1995). An assessment of agricultural and livestock depredation by wild animals at Patihani and Jagatpur areas near Royal Chitwan National Park. World Wildlife Fund Nepal Program. 24 pp.
64. White, P. C. and Ward, A. I. (2010). Interdisciplinary approaches for the management of existing and emerging human-wildlife conflicts. Wildlife Research, 37 (8): 623-629. [DOI:10.1071/WR10191]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

Send email to the article author


Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

  | Journal of Animal Diversity

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb