Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2019)                   JAD 2019, 1(1): 41-55 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Khaleghizadeh A, Anuar S. Comparative behavioral ecology of the White-Bellied Sea Eagle and Brahminy Kite (Aves: Accipitriformes) in Northwestern Malaysia. JAD 2019; 1 (1) :41-55
URL: http://jad.lu.ac.ir/article-1-37-en.html
1- Agricultural Zoology Research Department, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Tehran, Iran , akhaleghizadeh@gmail.com
2- School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, USM 11800, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
Abstract:   (7959 Views)
Behavioral events of two raptor species, the White-bellied Sea Eagle, Haliaeetus leucogaster Gmelin, 1788 and Brahminy Kite, Haliastur indus Boddaert, 1783 were studied once every two weeks in two locations in northwestern Malaysia, namely Balik Pulau and Kuala Sepetang, from September 2012 to September 2013. The average total number of behavioral events per hour was 45.9 (±40.3 SD), 117.0 (±131.7 SD), and 285.8 (±185.0 SD) for H. leucogaster at Balik Pulau, and H. indus at Balik Pulau and Kuala Sepetang, respectively. The total number of individuals of each species observed was significantly influenced by the time of day and weather (p<0.05). It was observed that the percentage of time spent for perching, flying, hunting and competition was significantly different between these two species and between two locations. The total number of behavioral events during observation dates was no different for the White-bellied Sea Eagle than that of the Brahminy Kite. Overall, the percentage of time that the birds spent perching, flying, hunting, social behavior and competition was different between species. The highest rate of successful predation was 94.6% for H. leucogaster while it was lower for H. indus at Balik Pulau (72.8%). The time of day was an effective factor for determining behaviors of H. leucogaster while it was not significant for H. indus. The effect of boat numbers and weather on behavior varied between species and locations. The state of the tide and the number of crows present did not have any significant effect on activities of these two species. Results of the comparison of the percentage of occurrence of five types of behavior between adults and juveniles showed that behaviors of perching, hunting and social behavior were different for H. leucogaster, behaviors of perching, flying and social interaction for H. indus at Balik Pulau and behaviors of perching, flying, hunting and social interaction for H. indus at Kuala Sepetang. However, they did not show different behavioral events of involving competition.
Full-Text [PDF 942 kb]   (2817 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original Research Article |
Received: 2019/08/13 | Accepted: 2019/09/26 | Published: 2019/09/30

1. Altmann, J. (1974). Observational study of behavior: sampling methods. Behaviour, 49 (3/4): 227–267.
2. Applegate, R. D., Flock, B. E. and Applegate, D. R. (2003). Effects of time of day on numbers and activity of fall migrant and wintering Red-tailed Hawks in eastern Kansas. Kansas Ornithological Society Bulletin, 54 (3): 37–39.
3. Baladrón, A. V., Bó, M. S. and Malizia, A. I. (2006). Winter diet and time-activity budgets of the Red-backed hawk (Buteo polyosoma) in the coastal grasslands of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Journal of Raptor Research, 40 (1): 65–70. https://doi.org/10.3356/0892-1016(2006)40[65:WDATBO]2.0.CO;2 [DOI]
4. Becker, J. M. (2002). Response of wintering Bald eagles to industrial construction in southeastern Washington. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 30 (3): 875–878.
5. Buttemer, W. A., Hayworth, A. M., Weathers, W. W. and Nagy, K. A. (1986). Time-budget estimates of avian energy expenditure: physiological and meteorological considerations. Physiological Zoology, 59 (2): 131–149.
6. Catry, I., Dias, M. P., Catry, T., Afanasyev, V., Fox, J., Franco, A. M. A. and Sutherland, W. J. (2011). Individual variation in migratory movements and winter behaviour of Iberian Lesser Kestrels Falco naumanni revealed by geolocators. Ibis, 153 (1): 154–164. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1474-919X.2010.01073.x [DOI]
7. Collopy, M. W. and Edwards, T. C. (1989). Territory size, activity budget, and role of undulating flight in nesting Golden Eagles. Journal of Field Ornithology, 60 (1): 43–51.
8. Cresswell, W. (1996). Surprise as a winter hunting strategy in sparrowhawks Accipiter nisus, peregrines Falco peregrinus and merlins F. columbarius. Ibis, 138 (4): 684–692. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1474-919X.1996.tb04770.x [DOI]
9. Dawson, R. D. and Bortolotti, G. R. (2000). Reproductive success of American kestrels: the role of prey abundance and weather. The Condor, 102 (4): 814–822. https://doi.org/10.1093/condor/102.4.814 [DOI]
10. Dekker, D., Dekker, I., Christie, D. and Ydenberg, R. (2011). Do staging semipalmated sandpipers spend the high-tide period in flight over the Ocean to Avoid Falcon Attacks along Shore? Waterbirds, 34 (2): 195–201. https://doi.org/10.1675/063.034.0208 [DOI]
11. Gaibani, G. and Csermely, D. (2007). Behavioral studies, In: Bird, D. M. and Bildstein, K. L. (Eds.), Raptor Research and Management Techniques. Hancock House, Surrey, British Columbia, Canada. 7: pp. 117–128.
12. Grubb, T. G. and King, R. M. (1991). Assessing human disturbance of breeding Bald Eagles with classification tree models. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 55 (3): 500–511. https://doi.org/10.2307/3808982 [DOI]
13. Indrayanto, P. (2011). Distribution and breeding behaviour of Brahminy Kite (Haliastur indus) on Penang Island and Matang mangrove forest reserve, Kuala Sepetang, Perak. MSc. Thesis. School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia.
14. Indrayanto, P., Latip, N. S. A. and Mohd Sah, S. A. (2011). Observations on the nesting behaviour of the Brahminy Kite Haliastur indus on Penang Island, Malaysia. Australian Field Ornithology, 28 (1): 38–46.
15. Jiménez, J. E. and Jaksic, F. M. (1991). Behavioral ecology of Red-backed Hawks in central Chile. The Wilson Bulletin, 103 (1): 132–137.
16. Khaleghizadeh, A. and Anuar, S. (2014a). Breeding landscape and nest spacing of two coastal raptors (Accipitriformes: White-bellied Sea Eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster and Brahminy Kite Haliastur indus) in Peninsular Malaysia. Italian Journal of Zoology, 81 (3): 431–439. https://doi.org/10.1080/11250003.2014.940004 [DOI]
17. Khaleghizadeh, A. and Anuar, S. (2014b). Nest tree selection by the Brahminy Kite Haliastur indus in a Rhizophora mangrove forest. Tropical Zoology, 27 (2): 40–52. https://doi.org/10.1080/03946975.2014.936751 [DOI]
18. Khaleghizadeh, A., Santangeli, A. and Anuar, S. (2014). Clear-cutting decreases nest occupancy of Brahminy Kite Haliastur indus in a managed mangrove forest of Southeast Asia. Ocean & Coastal Management, 93 (1): 60–66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2014.03.015 [DOI]
19. Khaleghizadeh, A. and Anuar, S. (2017). Factors affecting nest-site selection of the White-bellied Sea Eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster (Gmelin, 1788) in coastal rainforests, Peninsular Malaysia. Tropical Ecology, 58 (1): 115–125.
20. Kitowski, I. (2005). Sex skewed kleptoparasitic exploitation of common kestrel Falco tinnunculus: the role of hunting costs to victims and tactics of kleptoparasites. Folia Zoologica-Praha, 54 (4): 371–378.
21. Koplin, J. R., Collopy, M. W., Bammann, A. R. and Levenson, H. (1980). Energetics of two wintering raptors. The Auk, 97: 795–806.
22. Krüger, O. (2002). Interactions between common buzzard Buteo buteo and goshawk Accipiter gentilis: trade‐offs revealed by a field experiment. Oikos, 96 (3): 441–452. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0706.2002.960306.x [DOI]
23. Machmer, M. M. and Ydenberg, R. C. (1990). Weather and osprey foraging energetics. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 68 (1): 40–43. https://doi.org/10.1139/z90-007 [DOI]
24. Marzluff, J. M., DeLap, J. H. and Haycock, K. (2015). Population variation in Mobbing Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) by American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos). The Wilson Journal of Ornithology, 127 (2): 266–270. https://doi.org/10.1676/wils-127-02-266-270.1 [DOI]
25. Masduqi, M. S. (2011). Predicting the habitat selection and distribution of raptors using Geographic Information System technique: A case study with the White-bellied Sea-Eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster. MSc. Thesis. Pulau Pinang Malaysia, Universiti Sains Malaysia.
26. Meyers, L. S., Gamst, G. and Guarino, A. J. (2006). Applied Multivariate Research: Design and Interpretation. Thousand Oaks, SAGE Publications, California, USA 722 pp.
27. Olsen, J., Fuentes, E. and Rose, A. B. (2006). Trophic relationships between neighbouring White-bellied Sea-Eagles (Haliaeetus leucogaster) and Wedge-tailed Eagles (Aquila audax) breeding on rivers and dams near Canberra. Emu - Austral Ornithology, 106 (3): 193–201. https://doi.org/10.1071/MU05046 [DOI]
28. Page, G. and Whitacre, D. F. (1975). Raptor predation on wintering shorebirds. The Condor, 77 (1): 73–83. https://doi.org/10.2307/1366760 [DOI]
29. Palmer, A. G., Nordmeyer, D. L. and Roby, D. D. (2001). Factors influencing nest attendance and time-activity budgets of Peregrine Falcons in Interior Alaska. Arctic, 54 (2): 105–114. https://doi.org/10.14430/arctic769 [DOI]
30. Parsad, R. (2005). Transformation of data, In: Parsad, R., Srivastava, R. and Gupta, V. K. (Eds.), Des. Anal. Agric. Exp. Indian Agricultural Statistics Research Institute, New Delhi, India. pp. 637–647.
31. Peters, K. A. and Otis, D. L. (2005). Using the risk-disturbance hypothesis to assess the relative effects of human disturbance and predation risk on foraging American Oystercatchers. The Condor, 107 (3): 716–725. https://doi.org/10.1650/0010-5422(2005)107[0716:UTRHTA]2.0.CO;2 [DOI]
32. Richardson, C. T. and Miller, C. K. (1997). Recommendations for protecting raptors from human disturbance: A review. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 25 (3): 634–638.
33. Robson, C. (2002). A Field Guide to the Birds of South-East Asia. New Holland Publishers, UK. 504 pp.
34. Rodríguez-Estrella, R. (2000). Breeding success, nest-site characteristics, and diet of Swainson's hawk (Buteo swainsoni) in a stable population in northern México. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 78 (6): 1052–1059. https://doi.org/10.1139/z00-021 [DOI]
35. Scherzinger, W. (1974). Ethology and ontogenetic development of caged Snowy Owls (Nyctea scandiaca). Journal of Ornithology, 115 (1): 8–49. [in German]
36. Sergio, F., Marchesi, L. and Pedrini, P. (2003). Spatial refugia and the coexistence of a diurnal raptor with its intraguild owl predator. Journal of Animal Ecology, 72 (2): 232–245. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2656.2003.00693.x [DOI]
37. Simmons, R. and Barnard, P. (2011). Pied pirates: crow threat to raptors? Africa - Birds and Birding, 16 (5): 50–54.
38. Stalmaster, M. V. and Kaiser, J. L. (1997). Flushing responses of wintering Bald Eagles to military activity. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 61 (4): 1307–1313. https://doi.org /10.2307/3802130 [DOI]
39. Tacha, T. C., Vohs, P. A. and Iverson, G. C. (1985). A comparison of interval and continuous sampling methods for behavioral observations. Journal of Field Ornithology, 56 (3): 258–264.
40. Thiebot, J. B., Cherel, Y., Trathan, P. N. and Bost, C. A. (2012). Coexistence of oceanic predators on wintering areas explained by population-scale foraging segregation in space or time. Ecology, 93 (1): 122–130. https://doi.org/10.1890/11-0385.1 [DOI]
41. Thiollay, J. (1991). Foraging, home range use and social behaviour of a group-living rainforest raptor, the Red-throated Caracara Daptrius americanus. Ibis, 133 (4): 382–393. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1474-919X.1991.tb04586.x [DOI]
42. Toland, B. (1986). Hunting success of some Missouri raptors. The Wilson Bulletin, 98 (1): 116–125.
43. Watson, J. W., Garrett, M. G. and Anthony, R. G. (1991). Foraging ecology of Bald Eagles in the Columbia River Estuary. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 55 (3): 492–499. https://doi.org/10.2307/3808981 [DOI]
44. Wells, D. R. (1999). The birds of the Thai-Malay Peninsula: covering Burma and Thailand south of the eleventh parallel, Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore, Volume One, Non-passerines. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 648 pp.
45. Wood, P. B. (1999). Bald Eagle response to boating activity in Northcentral Florida. Journal of Raptor Research, 33 (2): 97–101.
46. Xirouchakis, S. M. (2007). Seasonal and daily activity pattern in Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus) colonies on the island of Crete (Greece). Ornis Fennica, 84: 39–46.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

  | Journal of Animal Diversity

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb