Volume 5, Issue 1 (Accepted 2023)                   JAD 2023, 5(1): 92-107 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Suryan T, Raghav G, Majumdar A, Tripathi R M. Global scenario on human-big cats interactions and coexistence patterns- a critical review. JAD 2023; 5 (1) :92-107
URL: http://jad.lu.ac.ir/article-1-288-en.html
1- State Forest Research Institute, Polipathar, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India
2- Christ Deemed to be University, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
3- State Forest Research Institute, Polipathar, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India , aniruddha.tiger@gmail.com
Abstract:   (1091 Views)
The big cats are of paramount importance for the sustenance of ecosystems and their interaction with humans is critical for their conservation. Coexistence and tolerance of the people involved will be crucial in the conservation of these cats in the growing human-dominated landscapes. The literature review on humans and big cats' conflicts and their coexistence indicates socio-economic factors are the main driving forces in shaping human attitudes toward these cats. In contrast to the mainstream view, conflict frequency does not directly affect the tolerance capacity of stakeholders; instead, coalitions of many factors like livelihood status, religious and cultural beliefs and government intervention are involved. The review provides an evaluation of the prevalent mitigation measures and other principles that govern human-big cats conflict and sheds light on the potential of coexistence as a pro-conservation strategy.

Full-Text [PDF 1287 kb]   (106 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Review Article | Subject: Ecological Diversity
Received: 2022/08/11 | Accepted: 2023/03/17 | Published: 2023/03/31

1. Alexander, J. S., Agvaantseren, B., Gongor, E., Mijiddorj, T. N., Piaopiao, T., Redpath, S. and Mishra, C. (2021). Assessing the effectiveness of a community-based livestock insurance program. Environmental Management, 68 (1): 87-99. [DOI:10.1007/s00267-021-01469-8] [PMID]
2. Athreya, V. R., Thakur, S. S., Chaudhuri, S. and Belsare, A. V. (2007). Leopards in human-dominated areas: a spillover from sustained translocations into nearby forests? Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 104 (1): 45-50.
3. Athreya, V., Linnell, J. D., Shivakumar, S. and Dhiman, S. P. (2019). The leopard that learnt from the cat and other narratives of carnivore-human coexistence in northern India. People and Nature, 1 (3): 376-386. [DOI:10.1002/pan3.10039]
4. Athreya, V., Odden, M., Linnell, J. D. and Karanth, K. U. (2011). Translocation as a tool for mitigating conflict with leopards in human-dominated landscapes of India. Conservation Biology, 25 (1): 133-141. [DOI:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2010.01599.x] [PMID]
5. Athreya, V., Odden, M., Linnell, J. D., Krishnaswamy, J. and Karanth, U. (2013). Big cats in our backyards: persistence of large carnivores in a human dominated landscape in India. PLoS ONE, 8 (3): e57872. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0057872] [PMID] [PMCID]
6. Athreya, V., Srivathsa, A., Puri, M., Karanth, K. K., Kumar, N. S. and Karanth, K. U. (2015). Spotted in the news: using media reports to examine leopard distribution, depredation, and management practices outside protected areas in Southern India. PLoS ONE, 10 (11): e0142647. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0142647] [PMID] [PMCID]
7. Baldus, R. D. (2006). A man-eating lion (Panthera leo) from Tanzania with a toothache. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 52 (1): 59-62. [DOI:10.1007/s10344-005-0008-0]
8. Baral, K., Sharma, H. P., Rimal, B., Thapa-Magar, K., Bhattarai, R., Kunwar, R. M. and Ji, W. (2021). Characterization and management of human-wildlife conflicts in mid-hills outside protected areas of Gandaki province, Nepal. PLoS ONE, 16 (11): e0260307. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0260307] [PMID] [PMCID]
9. Bargali, H. S. and Ahmed, T. (2018). Patterns of livestock depredation by tiger (Panthera tigris) and leopard (Panthera pardus) in and around Corbett Tiger Reserve, Uttarakhand, India. PLoS ONE, 13 (5): e0195612. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0195612] [PMID] [PMCID]
10. Barlow, A. C. D. (2009). The Sundarbans tiger: Adaptation, population status and conflict management. Ph.D. thesis. University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, USA. pp.106-115.
11. Bauer, H., Müller, L., Van Der Goes, D. and Sillero-Zubiri, C. (2015). Financial compensation for damage to livestock by lions Panthera leo on community rangelands in Kenya. Oryx, 51 (1): 106-114. [DOI:10.1017/S003060531500068X]
12. Brain, C. K. (1981). The hunters or the hunted: an introduction to African Cave Taphonomy. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA. 365 pp.
13. Carter, N. H., Shrestha, B. K., Karki, J. B., Pradhan, N. M. B. and Liu, J. (2012). Coexistence between wildlife and humans at fine spatial scales. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109 (38): 15360-15365. [DOI:10.1073/pnas.1210490109] [PMID] [PMCID]
14. Caruso, M. F., Tálamo, A., Perovic, P. G., Sillero-Zubiri, C. and Altrichter, M. (2021). Human-jaguar coexistence: social factors influencing jaguar conservation in Southern Bolivia. Kempffiana, 17 (2): 1-17. [DOI:10.1017/S0030605322001211]
15. Chatterjee, M., Krishnendu, B., Pandey, P. C., Singhai, S., Ashraf, N. V. K. and Kaul, R. (2017). Living with the wild; mitigating conflict between humans and big cat species in Uttar Pradesh. Wildlife Trust of India, National Capital Region, Conservation Action Series 20171220. 126 pp.
16. Chauhan, N. P. S. (2011). Man-eating and cattle-lifting by tigers and conservation implications in India. Julius-Kühn-Archiv, 432: 178-179.
17. Chouksey, S. and Singh, S. (2018). Assessments on the impact of human-tiger conflict and community-based conservation in Bandhavgarh Tiger Reserve, Madhya Pradesh, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 10 (7): 11844-11849. [DOI:10.11609/jott.3015.10.7.11844-11849]
18. Constant, N. L., Bell, S. and Hill, R. A. (2015). The impacts, characterisation and management of human-leopard conflict in a multi-use land system in South Africa. Biodiversity and Conservation, 24 (12): 2967-2989. [DOI:10.1007/s10531-015-0989-2]
19. Corbett, J. (1944). The man-eaters of Kumaon. Oxford University Press, London, UK. 267 pp.
20. Corbett, J. (1949). The man-eating leopard of Rudraprayag. Oxford University Press, London, UK. 184 pp.
21. Corbett, J. (1954). The Temple Tiger and more Man-eaters of Kumaon. Oxford University Press, London, UK. 184 pp.
22. de Araujo, G. R., de Paula, T. A. R., de Deco-Souza, T., Morato, R. G., Bergo, L. C., da Silva, L. C. and Braud, C. (2018). Comparison of semen samples collected from wild and captive jaguars (Panthera onca) by urethral catheterization after pharmacological induction. Animal Reproduction Science, 195: 1-7. [DOI:10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.12.019] [PMID]
23. Dhanwatey, H. S., Crawford, J. C., Abade, L. A., Dhanwatey, P. H., Nielsen, C. K. and Sillero-Zubiri, C. (2013). Large carnivore attacks on humans in central India: a case study from the Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve. Oryx, 47(2): 221-227. [DOI:10.1017/S0030605311001803]
24. Dhungana, R., Savini, T. O., Karki, J. B., Dhakal, M., Lamichhane, B. R. and Bumrungsri, S. (2018). Living with tigers Panthera tigris: patterns, correlates, and contexts of human-tiger conflict in Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Oryx, 52 (1): 55-65. [DOI:10.1017/S0030605316001587]
25. Engel, M. T., Vaske, J. J., Bath, A. J. and Marchini, S. (2017). Attitudes toward jaguars and pumas and the acceptability of killing big cats in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: an application of the Potential for Conflict Index 2. Ambio, 46: 604-612. [DOI:10.1007/s13280-017-0898-6] [PMID] [PMCID]
26. Forests and Environment Department, Government of Meghalaya. (2020). Forests and Environment Department, government of Meghalaya. http://www.megforest.gov.in (Accessed 15 July 2022).
27. Fort, J., Nielsen, C., Carver, A., Moreno, R. and Meyer, N. (2018). Factors influencing local attitudes and perceptions regarding jaguars Panthera onca and National Park conservation in Panama. Oryx, 52 (2): 282-291. [DOI:10.1017/S0030605317001016]
28. Gebresenbet, F., Bauer, H., Vadjunec, J. M. and Papeş, M. (2018). Beyond the numbers: human attitudes and conflict with lions (Panthera leo) in and around Gambella National Park, Ethiopia. PLoS ONE, 13 (9): e0204320. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0204320] [PMID] [PMCID]
29. Goodale, K., Parsons, G. J. and Sherren, K. (2015). The nature of the nuisance-damage or threat-determines how perceived monetary costs and cultural benefits influence farmer tolerance of wildlife. Diversity, 7 (3): 318-341. [DOI:10.3390/d7030318]
30. Goodrich, J. M. (2010). Human-tiger conflict: a review and call for comprehensive plans. Integrative Zoology, 5 (4): 300-312. [DOI:10.1111/j.1749-4877.2010.00218.x] [PMID]
31. Goodrich, J. M., Seryodkin, I., Miquelle, D. G. and Bereznuk, S. L. (2010). Conflicts between Amur tiger and humans in the Russian Far East. Biological Conservation 144 (1): 584-592. [DOI:10.1016/j.biocon.2010.10.016]
32. Govind, S. K. and Jayson, E. A. (2021). Human-Leopard conflict on the Kerala-Tamil Nadu Border, Southern India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 118.
33. Gurung, B., Smith, J. L. D., McDougal, C., Karki, J. B. and Barlow, A. (2008). Factors associated with human-killing tigers in Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Biological Conservation, 141: 3069-78. [DOI:10.1016/j.biocon.2008.09.013]
34. Hanson, J. H. (2022). Household conflicts with Snow Leopard conservation and impacts from Snow Leopards in the Everest and Annapurna Regions of Nepal. Environmental Management, 70 (1): 105-116. [DOI:10.1007/s00267-022-01653-4] [PMID] [PMCID]
35. Hathaway, R. S., Bryant, A. E. M., Draheim, M. M., Vinod, P., Limaye, S. and Athreya, V. (2017). From fear to understanding: changes in media representations of leopard incidences after media awareness workshops in Mumbai, India. Journal of Urban Ecology, 3 (1): 1-7. [DOI:10.1093/jue/jux009]
36. Hazani, R., Buntic, R. F. and Brooks, D. (2008). Microsurgical scalp reconstruction after a mountain lion attack. Annals of Plastic Surgery, 61 (3): 265-268. [DOI:10.1097/SAP.0b013e318160dff1] [PMID]
37. Homewood, K., Kristjanson, P. and Trench, P. (Eds.) (2009). Staying Maasai?: Livelihoods, conservation and development in East African rangelands (studies in human ecology and adaptation, 5). Springer Science and Business Media. 434 pp. [DOI:10.1007/978-0-387-87492-0]
38. Inskip, C. and Zimmermann, A. (2009). Human-felid conflict: a review of patterns and priorities worldwide. Oryx, 43 (1): 18-34. [DOI:10.1017/S003060530899030X]
39. Inskip, C., Carter, N., Riley, S., Roberts, T. and MacMillan, D. (2016). Toward human-carnivore coexistence: understanding tolerance for tigers in Bangladesh. PLoS ONE, 11 (1): e0145913. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0145913] [PMID] [PMCID]
40. Iserson, K. V. and Francis, A. M. (2015). Jaguar attack on a child: case report and literature review. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 16 (2): 303-309. [DOI:10.5811/westjem.2015.1.24043] [PMID] [PMCID]
41. Jędrzejewski, W., Robinson, H. S., Abarca, M., Zeller, K. A., Velasquez, G., Paemelaere, E. A. and Quigley, H. (2018). Estimating large carnivore populations at global scale based on spatial predictions of density and distribution-application to the jaguar (Panthera onca). PLoS ONE, 13 (3): e0194719. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0194719] [PMID] [PMCID]
42. Johnson, A., Vongkhamheng, C., Hedemark, M. and Saithongdam, T. (2006). Effects of human-carnivore conflict on tiger (Panthera tigris) and prey populations in Lao PDR. Animal Conservation, 9: 421-30. [DOI:10.1111/j.1469-1795.2006.00049.x]
43. Kadesky, K. M., Manarey, C., Blair, G. K., Murphy, III, J. J., Verchere, C. and Atkinson, K. (1998). Cougar attacks on children: injury patterns and treatment. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 33 (6): 863-865. [DOI:10.1016/S0022-3468(98)90661-3] [PMID]
44. Kala, C. P. and Kothari, K. K. (2013). Livestock predation by common leopard in Binsar Wildlife Sanctuary, India: human-wildlife conflicts and conservation issues. Human-Wildlife Interactions, 7 (2): 325-333.
45. Karanth, K. K., Gupta, S. and Vanamamalai, A. (2018). Compensation payments, procedures, and policies towards human-wildlife conflict management: Insights from India. Biological Conservation, 227: 383-389. [DOI:10.1016/j.biocon.2018.07.006]
46. Karanth, K. K., Naughton-Treves, L., DeFries, R. and Gopalaswamy, A. M. (2013). Living with wildlife and mitigating conflicts around three Indian protected areas. Environmental management, 52 (6): 1320-1332. [DOI:10.1007/s00267-013-0162-1] [PMID]
47. Karanth, K. U. and Gopal, R. (2005). An ecology-based policy framework for human-tiger coexistence in India, In: Woodruffe, R., Thirgood, S. and Rabinowitz, A. (Eds.), People and wildlife: conflict or co-existence? Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. pp. 373-87. [DOI:10.1017/CBO9780511614774.024]
48. Kenney, J. S., Smith, J. L. D., Starfield, A. M. and McDougal, C. W. (1995). The long-term effects of tiger poaching on population viability. Conservation Biology, 9 (5): 1127-1133. [DOI:10.1046/j.1523-1739.1995.9051116.x-i1] [PMID]
49. Khan, U., Ferretti, F., Ali Shah, S. and Lovari, S. (2020). A large carnivore among people and livestock: the common leopard, In: Angelici, F. M. and Rossi, L. (Eds.), Problematic Wildlife II: New Conservation and Management Challenges in the Human-Wildlife Interactions. Springer, Germany. pp. 93-110. [DOI:10.1007/978-3-030-42335-3_3]
50. Khorozyan, I., Ghoddousi, A., Soofi, M. and Waltert, M. (2015). Big cats kill more livestock when wild prey reaches a minimum threshold. Biological Conservation, 192: 268-275. [DOI:10.1016/j.biocon.2015.09.031]
51. Kleiven, J., Bjerke, T. and Kaltenborn, B. P. (2004). Factors influencing the social acceptability of large carnivore behaviours. Biodiversity and Conservation, 13 (9): 1647-1658. [DOI:10.1023/B:BIOC.0000029328.81255.38]
52. Krafte Holland, K., Larson, L. R. and Powell, R. B. (2018). Characterizing conflict between humans and big cats Panthera spp: a systematic review of research trends and management opportunities. PLoS ONE, 13 (9): e0203877. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0203877] [PMID] [PMCID]
53. Kushnir, H., Weisberg, S., Olson, E., Juntunen, T., Ikanda, D. and Packer, C. (2014). Using landscape characteristics to predict risk of lion attacks on humans in south-eastern Tanzania. African Journal of Ecology, 52 (4): 524-532. [DOI:10.1111/aje.12157]
54. Larabee, T. M., Forke, J. and Beier, P. (2010). Mountain lion attacks in the United States: 1950 through May 2009. Wilderness and Environmental Medicine, 21 (4): 375. [DOI:10.1016/j.wem.2010.08.008]
55. Leavitt, D. J. (2003). Mountain lion incidents in Big Bend National Park, 1953-2003. Prepared for: Big Bend National Park Division of Science and Resource Management. 12 pp.
56. LeFlore, E. G., Fuller, T. K., Tomeletso, M. and Stein, A. B. (2019). Livestock depredation by large carnivores in northern Botswana. Global Ecology and Conservation, 18: e00592. [DOI:10.1016/j.gecco.2019.e00592]
57. Löe, J. and Röskaft, E. (2004). Large carnivores and human safety: a review. Ambio, 33: 283-288. [DOI:10.1579/0044-7447-33.6.283] [PMID]
58. Majumder, A., Sankar, K., Qureshi, Q. and Basu, S. (2013). Predation ecology of large sympatric carnivores as influenced by available wild ungulate prey in a tropical deciduous forest of Central India. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 29 (5): 417-426. [DOI:10.1017/S0266467413000473]
59. Mansfield, T. M. and Charlton, K. G. (1998). Trends in mountain lion depredation and public safety incidents in California. Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference (1998), 118-121. [DOI:10.5070/V418110035]
60. Marchini, S. and Crawshaw, P. G. (2015). Human-wildlife conflicts in Brazil: a fast-growing issue. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 20 (4): 323-328. [DOI:10.1080/10871209.2015.1004145]
61. Marker, L. L. and Boast, L. K. (2015). Human-wildlife conflict 10 years later: lessons learned and their application to cheetah conservation. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 20 (4): 302-309. [DOI:10.1080/10871209.2015.1004144]
62. McDougal, C. (1987). The man-eating tiger in geographical and historical perspective, In: Tilson, R. L. and Seal, U. S. (Eds.), Tigers of the world: the biology, biopolitics, management, and conservation of an endangered species. Noyes, Park Ridge, NJ, USA. pp. 435-8.
63. Meena, V., Johnson, P., Zimmermann, A., Montgomery, R. and Macdonald, D. (2021). Evaluation of human attitudes and factors conducive to promoting human-lion coexistence in the Greater Gir landscape, India. Oryx, 55 (4): 589-598.
64. Mishra, C., Allen, P., McCarthy, T. O. M., Madhusudan, M. D., Bayarjargal, A. and Prins, H. H. (2003). The role of incentive programs in conserving the snow leopard. Conservation Biology, 17 (6): 1512-1520. [DOI:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2003.00092.x]
65. Mkonyi, F. J., Estes, A. B., Msuha, M. J., Lichtenfeld, L. L. and Durant, S. M. (2017). Local attitudes and perceptions toward large carnivores in a human-dominated landscape of northern Tanzania. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 22 (4): 314-330. [DOI:10.1080/10871209.2017.1323356]
66. Nabi, D. G., Tak, S. R., Kangoo, K. A. and Halwai, M. A. (2009). Injuries from leopard attacks in Kashmir. Injury, 40 (1): 90-92. [DOI:10.1016/j.injury.2008.05.033] [PMID]
67. Naha, D., Jhala, Y. V., Qureshi, Q., Roy, M., Sankar, K. and Gopal, R. (2016). Ranging, activity and habitat use by tigers in the mangrove forests of the Sundarban. PLoS ONE, 11 (4): e0152119. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0152119] [PMID] [PMCID]
68. National Geographic Society (2022). Available: https://www.nationalgeographic.org/society/ (Accessed 15 July 2022).
69. Nepal, S. K. and Weber, K. E. (1995). The quandary of local people-Park relations in Nepal's Royal Chitwan National Park. Environmental Management, 19: 853-866. [DOI:10.1007/BF02471937]
70. Neto, M. F. C., Neto, D. G. and Haddad, V. (2011). Attacks by jaguars (Panthera onca) on humans in central Brazil: report of three cases, with observation of a death. Wilderness and Environmental Medicine, 22 (2): 130-135. [DOI:10.1016/j.wem.2011.01.007] [PMID]
71. Nugraha, R. T. and Sugardjito, J. (2009). Assessment and management options of human-tiger conflicts in Kerinci Seblat National Park, Sumatra, Indonesia. Mammal Study, 34 (3): 141-154. [DOI:10.3106/041.034.0303]
72. Nyhus, P. J. (2016). Human-wildlife conflict and coexistence. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 41: 143-171. [DOI:10.1146/annurev-environ-110615-085634]
73. Oriol-Cotterill, A., Macdonald, D. W., Valeix, M., Ekwanga, S. and Frank, L. G. (2015). Spatiotemporal patterns of lion space use in a human-dominated landscape. Animal Behaviour, 101: 27-39. [DOI:10.1016/j.anbehav.2014.11.020]
74. Packer, C., Brink, H., Kissui, B. M., Maliti, H., Kushnir, H. and Caro, T. (2011). Effects of trophy hunting on lion and leopard populations in Tanzania. Conservation Biology, 25 (1): 142-153. [DOI:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2010.01576.x] [PMID]
75. Patterson, B. D. (2004). The lions of Tsavo: exploring the legacy of Africa's notorious man-eaters. McGraw-Hill, New York, USA. 260 pp.
76. Patterson, B. D., Kasiki, S. M., Selempo, E. and Kays, R. W. (2004). Livestock predation by lions (Panthera leo) and other carnivores on ranches neighboring Tsavo National Parks, Kenya. Biological Conservation, 119: 507-516. [DOI:10.1016/j.biocon.2004.01.013]
77. Patterson, B. D., Neiburger, E. J. and Kasiki, S. M. (2003). Tooth breakage and dental disease as causes of carnivore-human conflicts. Journal of Mammalogy, 84 (1): 190-196. [DOI:10.1644/1545-1542(2003)0842.0.CO;2]
78. Peterhans, J. C. K. and Gnoske, T. P. (2001). The science of 'man-eating' among lions Panthera leo with a reconstruction of the natural history of the 'man-eaters of Tsavo'. Journal of East African Natural History, 90 (1): 1-40. [DOI:10.2982/0012-8317(2001)90[1:TSOMAL]2.0.CO;2]
79. Puls, S., Teichman, K. J., Jansen, C., O'Riain Justin, M. and Cristescu, B. (2021). Activity patterns of leopards (Panthera pardus) and temporal overlap with their prey in an arid depredation hotspot of southern Africa. Journal of Arid Environments, 187: 104430. [DOI:10.1016/j.jaridenv.2020.104430]
80. Riley, S. J. and Decker, D. J. (2000). Risk perception as a factor in wildlife stakeholder acceptance capacity for cougars in Montana. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 5 (3): 50-62. [DOI:10.1080/10871200009359187]
81. Rumbelow, D. P. (2017). Human and mountain lion interaction in Big Bend National Park. MSc. thesis. College of Agricultural and Natural Resource Sciences of Sul Ross State University, USA.
82. Saberwal, V. K., Gibbs, J. P., Chellam, R. and Johnsingh, A. J. T. (1994). Lion-human conflict in the Gir Forest, India. Conservation Biology, 8 (2): 501-507. [DOI:10.1046/j.1523-1739.1994.08020501.x]
83. Samelius, G., Suryawanshi, K., Frank, J., Agvaantseren, B., Baasandamba, E., Mijiddorj, T. and Mishra, C. (2021). Keeping predators out: testing fences to reduce livestock depredation at night-time corrals. Oryx, 55 (3): 466-472. [DOI:10.1017/S0030605319000565]
84. Sathyakumar, S., Bhattacharya, T., Mondal, K., Naha, D. and Mathur, V. B. (2016). Human-wildlife interactions (conflicts) in the Indian Himalayan Region: current scenario and the path ahead, In: Technical Compendium of National Conference on Hill Agriculture in Perspective, pp. 121-137.
85. Seidensticker, J. (1986). Large carnivores and the consequences of habitat insularization: ecology and conservation of tigers in Indonesia and Bangladesh, In: Miller, S. D. and Everett, D. D. (Eds.), Cats of the world: biology, conservation, and management. National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC, USA. pp. pp. 1-41.
86. Sharma, P., Chettri, N., Uddin, K., Wangchuk, K., Joshi, R., Tandin, T. and Sharma, E. (2020). Mapping human-wildlife conflict hotspots in a transboundary landscape, Eastern Himalaya. Global Ecology and Conservation, 24: e01284. [DOI:10.1016/j.gecco.2020.e01284]
87. Shepherd, S. M. (2020). Large felid predators and "man-eaters": can we successfully balance conservation of endangered apex predators with the safety and needs of rapidly expanding human populations?, In: Angelici, F. M. and Rossi, L. (Eds.), Problematic wildlife II. New conservation and management challenges in the human-wildlife interactions. Springer Nature Switzerland AG, xiv + 649 pp. pp. 17-91. [DOI:10.1007/978-3-030-42335-3_2]
88. Sidhu, S., Raghunathan, G., Mudappa, D. and Raman, T. S. (2017). Conflict to coexistence: human-leopard interactions in a plantation landscape in Anamalai Hills, India. Conservation and Society, 15 (4): 474-482. [DOI:10.4103/cs.cs_16_35]
89. Sillero-Zubiri, C. and Laurenson, M. K. (2001). Interactions between carnivores and local communities: conflict or coexistence? Conservation Biology Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, UK. 5, 282-312.
90. Singh, R., Nigam, P., Qureshi, Q., Sankar, K., Krausman, P. R., Goyal, S. P. and Nicholoson, K. L. (2015). Characterizing human-tiger conflict in and around Ranthambhore Tiger Reserve, western India. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 61: 255-261. [DOI:10.1007/s10344-014-0895-z]
91. Stepkovitch, B., Kingsford, R. T. and Moseby, K. E. (2022). A comprehensive review of mammalian carnivore translocations. Mammal Review, 52 (4): 554-572. [DOI:10.1111/mam.12304]
92. Struebig, M. J., Linkie, M., Deere, N. J., Martyr, D. J., Millyanawati, B., Faulkner, S. C. and John, F. A. (2018). Addressing human-tiger conflict using socio-ecological information on tolerance and risk. Nature communications, 9 (1): 1-9. [DOI:10.1038/s41467-018-05983-y] [PMID] [PMCID]
93. Sukumar, R. (1991). The management of large mammals in relation to male strategies and conflict with people. Biological Conservation, 55 (1): 93-102. [DOI:10.1016/0006-3207(91)90007-V]
94. Sweanor, L. L., and Logan, K. A. (2010). Cougar-human interactions, In: Hornocker, M. and Negri, S. (Eds.), Cougar: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA. pp. 190-205.
95. Thompson, J. J., Morato, R. G., Niebuhr, B. B., Alegre, V. B., Oshima, J. E. F., de Barros, A. E. and Ribeiro, M. C. (2021). Environmental and anthropogenic factors synergistically affect space use of jaguars. Current Biology, 31 (15): 3457-3466.
96. Treves, A. and Karanth, K. U. (2003). Human-carnivore conflict and perspectives on carnivore management worldwide. Conservation Biology, 17 (6): 1491-1499. [DOI:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2003.00059.x]
97. Treves, A. and Naughton-Treves, L. (1999). Risk and opportunity for humans coexisting with large carnivores. Journal of Human Evolution, 36 (3): 275-282. [DOI:10.1006/jhev.1998.0268] [PMID]
98. Tripura Disaster Management Authority (2018). http://tdma.tripura.gov.in (Accessed 15 July 2022).
99. Uduman, A., Hagerman, S., Kroc, E., Watson, A., Kittle, A. and Burton, A. (2022). Attitudes towards the Sri Lankan leopard Panthera pardus kotiya in two rural communities. Oryx, 56 (4): 528-536. [DOI:10.1017/S0030605321000247]
100. United Nations (2020). Welcome to the United Nations. It's your world. https://www.un.org (Accessed 15 July 2022).
101. van Bommel, J. K., Badry, M., Ford, A. T., Golumbia, T. and Burton, A. C. (2020). Predicting human-carnivore conflict at the urban-wildland interface. Global Ecology and Conservation, 24: e01322. [DOI:10.1016/j.gecco.2020.e01322]
102. Van der Meer, E. and Dullemont, H. (2021). Human-carnivore coexistence: factors influencing stakeholder attitudes towards large carnivores and conservation in Zimbabwe. Environmental Conservation, 48 (1): 48-57. [DOI:10.1017/S0376892920000491]
103. Van der Weyde, L. K., Hubel, T. Y., Horgan, J., Shotton, J., McKenna, R. and Wilson, A. M. (2017). Movement patterns of cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in farmlands in Botswana. Biology Open, 6 (1): 118-124. [DOI:10.1242/bio.021055] [PMID] [PMCID]
104. Winterbach, H. E. K., Winterbach, C. W., Somers, M. J. and Hayward, M. W. (2013). Key factors and related principles in the conservation of large African carnivores, Mammal Review 43 (2): 89-110. [DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2907.2011.00209.x]
105. WWF International (2020). Welcome to WWF-India. https://www.wwfindia.org (Accessed 15 July 2022).
106. Xiao, L., Hua, F., Knops, J. M. H., Zhao, X., Mishra, C., Lovari, S. and Lu, Z. (2022). Spatial separation of prey from livestock facilitates coexistence of a specialized large carnivore with human land use. Animal Conservation, 25 (5): 638-647. [DOI:10.1111/acv.12769]
107. Zehra, N., Chaudhary, R., Kumar, S. and Khan, J. A. (2022). Human-leopard interactions around Gir National Park and sanctuary, Gujarat, India. International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 48 (6): 755-765. [DOI:10.55863/ijees.v48i6.2617]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

  | Journal of Animal Diversity

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb