Volume 5, Issue 2 (6-2023)                   JAD 2023, 5(2): 46-56 | Back to browse issues page


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Jamtsho S, Phuntsho S, Dorji T, Tharchen L. Foraging and nesting behavior of Pallas’s fish eagle, Haliaeetus leucoryphus (Pallas, 1771) in the Himalayan Bhutan. JAD 2023; 5 (2) :46-56
URL: http://jad.lu.ac.ir/article-1-237-en.html
1- Paro Forest Division, Department of Forests and Park Services, Postal Code No. 12001, Paro, Bhutan
2- 1Paro Forest Division, Department of Forests and Park Services, Postal Code No. 12001, Paro, Bhutan
3- Royal Manas National Park, Department of Forests and Park Services, Postal code no 31101, Sarpang, Bhutan
4- United Nation Development Program, Postal Code No. 11001, Bhutan
Abstract:   (3934 Views)
Pallas’s fish eagle, Haliaeetus leucoryphus (Pallas), is listed as endangered (En) in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species with a global population of 2,500 to 9,999 individuals. It is one of the least known species in Bhutan and assessing its foraging and nesting behavior will be one of the best conservation measures to monitor its status, ecology and conservation threats. Therefore, the nesting behavior of the eagle was observed for two months and chick feeding activities for sixteen weeks at 21 vantage points along a 75 km highway in the Punatshangchu River Valley, Bhutan. Fifty households residing 500 m from the river were interviewed using structured questionnaires to examine their perception towards the eagle. A total of 92% (n= 46) of respondents were aware of the presence of H. leucoryphus in their locality and 78% felt that it is a rare and endangered fishing eagle. However, 84% (n= 42) of respondents were not aware of nesting within their vicinity. The sexes of H. leucoryphus can be differentiated by their plumage and the fledgling was observed approximately one week after the end of the incubation period. It took 112 days for the fledging to leave the nest. The study revealed that the eagle preferred foraging between 7  and 9 AM in the morning and in the afternoon from 1 to 3 PM. The maximum foraging attempts occurred in a pool habitat 54% (n= 37) with a success rate of 78% (n= 54). The hunting and feeding of the fledgling was done by the male and prey delivery in the first two months consisted of 78.5% fish and 19.5% rodents. However, the feeding of fish declined by 35% in the next two months and its diet mainly consisted of small birds. Attacks on the fledgling were done by the crested serpent eagle (Spilornis cheela Latham) (48%), followed by the black eagle Ictinaetus malaiensis (Temminck) (33%).
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Type of Study: Original Research Article | Subject: Ecological Diversity
Received: 2022/08/15 | Accepted: 2023/06/9 | Published: 2023/09/6

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