Volume 4, Issue 1 (In Press 2022)                   JAD 2022, 4(1): 27-40 | Back to browse issues page


XML Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Upadhyaya L P, Pandey N, Khanal L. Tribhuvan University area serves as a greenspace for birds in the Kathmandu Valley, Central Nepal. JAD. 2022; 4 (1) :27-40
URL: http://jad.lu.ac.ir/article-1-198-en.html
1- Central Department of Zoology, Institute of Science and Technology, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal
2- Central Department of Zoology, Institute of Science and Technology, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal , pandeynaresh25@gmail.com
Abstract:   (4232 Views)
The Kathmandu Valley, encompassing the capital city of Nepal, is one of the fastest growing metropolitan areas in South Asia. Rapid population growth and urbanization in Kathmandu have degraded the urban environment affecting the native biota. Therefore, a detailed assessment of avian species richness and its distribution in potential green spaces of the Kathmandu Valley is essential. We assessed the avian diversity in different habitats of the Tribhuvan University area, a potential refuge for birds in the urban landscape, by the point count method in the winter and summer of 2020. A total of 71 bird species from 39 genera and 32 families comprising 10 orders - ‘including the globally endangered Steppe eagle (Aquila nipalensis)’ - were recorded. Of the 10 orders, Passeriformes (44 species), had the highest richness followed by Columbiformes, Piciformes and Cuculiformes (with four species in each). Among the feeding guilds, the insectivorous guild (with 28 species) had the highest species richness followed by omnivores and carnivores. A higher Shannon’s diversity index was recorded in forest habitats (3.51) than built-up areas (3.45) or farmland (3.42). Despite the small size, our study has shown that the Tribhuvan University area is an important greenspace for birds in the Kathmandu Valley. An extensive exploration, monitoring and management of greenspaces are crucial for maintaining the ecological integrity of the urban landscape of the Kathmandu Valley.
Full-Text [PDF 5518 kb]   (508 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original Research Article | Subject: Species Diversity
Received: 2021/09/20 | Accepted: 2022/01/28 | Published: 2022/03/31

References
1. Baral, H. S. and Inskipp, C. (2005). Important bird areas in Nepal: Key sites for conservation. Bird Conservation Nepal, Kathmandu. 242 pp.
2. Bibby, C. J., Burgess, N. D., Hill, D. A. and Mustoe, S. (2000). Bird census techniques. Academic Press. 302 pp.
3. Bino, G., Levin, N., Darawshi, S., Van Der Hal, N., Reich‐Solomon, A. and Kark, S. (2008). Accurate prediction of bird species richness patterns in an urban environment using Landsat‐derived NDVI and spectral unmixing. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 29 (13): 3675-3700.
4. BirdLife International (2017). Threatened birds occur in all habitats, but the majority are found in forest. Retrieved from http://www.birdlife.org
5. BirdLife International (2020). Aquila nipalensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020: e.T22696038A180479129.
6. Black, S. H. (2011). Attracting native pollinators: Protecting North America's bees and butterflies: the Xerces Society guide. Storey Publishing. 380 pp.
7. Carbó-Ramírez, P. and Zuria, I. (2011). The value of small urban greenspaces for birds in a Mexican city. Landscape and Urban Planning, 100 (3): 213-222.
8. Caula, S., Marty, P. and Martin, J.-L. (2008). Seasonal variation in species composition of an urban bird community in Mediterranean France. Landscape and Urban Planning, 87 (1): 1-9.
9. Chen, S., Ding, P., Zheng, G. and Wang, Y. (2006). Bird community patterns in response to the island features of urban woodlots in eastern China. Frontiers of Biology in China, 1 (4): 448-454.
10. Chettri, A., Sharma, K., Dewan, S. and Acharya, B. K. (2018). Bird diversity of tea plantations in Darjeeling Hills, Eastern Himalaya, India. Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity, 19 (3): 1066-1073.
11. Dahal, B. R. and Bhuju, D. R. (2008). Bird mobility and their habitat at Tribhuvan International Airport, Kathmandu. Nepal Journal of Science and Technology, 9: 119-130.
12. Dale, S. (2018). Urban bird community composition influenced by size of urban green spaces, presence of native forest, and urbanization. Urban Ecosystems, 21 (1): 1-14.
13. Dangaura, H. L., Pandey, N., Chand, D. B. and Bhusal, K. P. (2020). Avian richness of the Basanta Protected Forest, far-western lowland Nepal: Implication for conservation. Nepalese Journal of Zoology, 4 (2): 68-84.
14. Daniels, G. D. and Kirkpatrick, J. B. (2006). Does variation in garden characteristics influence the conservation of birds in suburbia? Biological Conservation, 133 (3): 326-335.
15. de Bonilla, E. P.-D., León-Cortés, J. L. and Rangel-Salazar, J. L. (2012). Diversity of bird feeding guilds in relation to habitat heterogeneity and land-use cover in a human-modified landscape in southern Mexico. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 28 (4): 369-376.
16. Deng, C., Daley, T. and Smith, A. (2015). Applications of species accumulation curves in large-scale biological data analysis. Quantitative Biology, 3 (3): 135-144.
17. DNPWC and BCN (2018). Birds of Nepal: An official checklist. Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation and Bird Conservation Nepal, Kathmandu. 36 pp.
18. Ferenc, M., Sedláček, O., Fuchs, R., Dinetti, M., Fraissinet, M. and Storch, D. (2014). Are cities different? Patterns of species richness and beta diversity of urban bird communities and regional species assemblages in Europe. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 23 (4): 479-489.
19. Fernández-Juricic, E. (2000). Bird community composition patterns in urban parks of Madrid: the role of age, size and isolation. Ecological Research, 15 (4): 373-383.
20. Fernández-Juricic, E. (2004). Spatial and temporal analysis of the distribution of forest specialists in an urban-fragmented landscape (Madrid, Spain): implications for local and regional bird conservation. Landscape and Urban Planning, 69 (1): 17-32.
21. Frey, K. and LeBuhn, G. (2016). The bee-friendly garden: design an abundant, flower-filled yard that nurtures bees and supports biodiversity. Ten Speed Press. 224 pp.
22. García, D. (2016). Birds in ecological networks: Insights from bird-plant mutualistic interactions. Ardeola, 63 (1): 151-180.
23. Gatesire, T., Nsabimana, D., Nyiramana, A., Seburanga, J. and Mirville, M. (2014). Bird diversity and distribution in relation to urban landscape types in Northern Rwanda. The Scientific World Journal, 2014: 157824.
24. Grimm, N. B., Faeth, S. H., Golubiewski, N. E., Redman, C. L., Wu, J., Bai, X., et al. (2008). Global change and the ecology of cities. Science, 319 (5864): 756-760.
25. Grimmett, R., Inskipp, C., Inskipp, T. and Baral, H. S. (2016). Birds of Nepal. Bloomsbury Publishing. 368 pp.
26. Hall, D. M., Camilo, G. R., Tonietto, R. K., Ollerton, J., Ahrné, K., Arduser, M., et al. (2017). The city as a refuge for insect pollinators. Conservation Biology, 31 (1): 24-29.
27. Inskipp, C., Baral, H. S., Acharya, S., Chaudhary, H., Ghimire, M. and Giri, D. (2020). Rare birds in Nepal. Nepalese Journal of Zoology, 4 (2): 108-132.
28. Ishtiaque, A., Shrestha, M. and Chhetri, N. (2017). Rapid urban growth in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal: Monitoring land use land cover dynamics of a himalayan city with landsat imageries. Environments, 4 (4): 72.
29. Iswandaru, D., Novriyanti, N., Banuwa, I. S. and Harianto, S. P. (2020). The distribution of bird communities in University of Lampung, Indonesia. Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity, 21 (6): 2629-2637.
30. IUCN (2021). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 5th October 2021, Retrieved from https://www.iucnredlist.org
31. Jasmani, Z., Ravn, H. P. and van den Bosch, C. C. K. (2017). The influence of small urban parks characteristics on bird diversity: A case study of Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. Urban Ecosystems, 20 (1): 227-243.
32. Jha, P. K. (2020). Seasonal diversity of birds in Nagarjun Forest of Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park, Kathmandu, Nepal. Tribhuvan University Journal, 35 (1): 33-43.
33. Jønsson, K. A. and Holt, B. G. (2015). Islands contribute disproportionately high amounts of evolutionary diversity in passerine birds. Nature Communication, 6 (1): 8538.
34. Katuwal, H. B. (2016). How many birds do the sacred forests hold? Journal of Zoology Studies, 3 (4): 7-19.
35. Katuwal, H. B., Basent, H., Sharma, H. P., Koirala, S., Khanal, B., Neupane, K. R., et al. (2020). Wildlife assessment of the Chandragiri hills, Kathmandu: Potentiality for ecotourism. European Journal of Ecology, 6 (1): 27-50.
36. Katuwal, H. B., Pradhan, N. M. B., Thakuri, J. J., Bhusal, K. P., Aryal, P. C. and Thapa, I. (2018). Effect of urbanization and seasonality in bird communities of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Proceedings of the Zoological Society, 71 (2): 103-113.
37. Krebs, C. J. (1978). Ecological methodology. New York, Harper and Row Publisher. 620 pp.
38. Lešo, P., Kropil, R. and Kajtoch, Ł. (2019). Effects of forest management on bird assemblages in oak-dominated stands of the Western Carpathians-Refuges for rare species. Forest Ecology and Management, 453: 117620.
39. MacGregor-Fors, I., Morales-Pérez, L. and Schondube, J. E. (2010). Migrating to the city: responses of neotropical migrant bird communities to urbanization. The Condor, 112 (4): 711-717.
40. Matthews, S. N. and Rodewald, P. G. (2010). Urban forest patches and stopover duration of migratory Swainson's thrushes. The Condor, 112 (1): 96-104.
41. Menon, M. and Mohanraj, R. (2016). Temporal and spatial assemblages of invasive birds occupying the urban landscape and its gradient in a southern city of India. Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity, 9 (1): 74-84.
42. Muñoz-Pedreros, A., Gil, C., Yáñez, J., Rau, J. R. and Möller, P. (2016). Trophic ecology of two raptors, Barn owl (Tyto alba) and White-tailed kite (Elanus leucurus), and possible implications for biological control of Hantavirus reservoir in Chile. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology, 128 (2): 391-403.
43. Muzzini, E. and Aparicio, G. (2013). Urban growth and spatial transition in Nepal: An initial assessment. Directions in development : countries and regions; The World Bank, Washington. Accessed from https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/13110 (14 December 2021).
44. Nyffeler, M., Şekercioğlu, Ç. H. and Whelan, C. J. (2018). Insectivorous birds consume an estimated 400-500 million tons of prey annually. The Science of Nature, 105 (7): 1-13.
45. Ottoni, I., de Oliveira, F. F. and Young, R. J. (2009). Estimating the diet of urban birds: the problems of anthropogenic food and food digestibility. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 117 (1-2): 42-46.
46. Paker, Y., Yom-Tov, Y., Alon-Mozes, T. and Barnea, A. (2014). The effect of plant richness and urban garden structure on bird species richness, diversity and community structure. Landscape and Urban Planning, 122: 186-195.
47. Panda, B. P., Prusty, B. A. K., Panda, B., Pradhan, A. and Parida, S. P. (2021). Habitat heterogeneity influences avian feeding guild composition in urban landscapes: evidence from Bhubaneswar, India. Ecological Processes, 10 (1): 31.
48. Pandey, N., Khanal, L. and Chalise, M. K. (2020). Correlates of avifaunal diversity along the elevational gradient of Mardi Himal in Annapurna Conservation Area, Central Nepal. Avian Research, 11 (1): 31.
49. Philpott, S. M., Albuquerque, S., Bichier, P., Cohen, H., Egerer, M. H., Kirk, C., et al. (2019). Local and landscape drivers of carabid activity, species richness, and traits in urban gardens in coastal California. Insects, 10 (4): 112.
50. Plaza, P. I., Blanco, G., Madariaga, M. J., Boeri, E., Teijeiro, M. L., Bianco, G., et al. (2019). Scavenger birds exploiting rubbish dumps: Pathogens at the gates. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 66 (2): 873-881.
51. Poudel, B., Neupane, B., Joshi, R., Silwal, T., Raut, N. and Thanet, D. (2021). Factors affecting the species richness and composition of bird species in a community managed forest of Nepal. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 13 (9): 19212-19222.
52. Pudyatmoko, S. and Nurvianto, S. (2009). Role of urban environment on conservation of birds diversity in Java, Indonesia. Journal of Biological Sciences, 9 (4): 345-350.
53. R-Core-Team. (2017). R: a language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. https://www.R-project.org
54. Ricklefs, R. E. (2012). Species richness and morphological diversity of passerine birds. PNAS, 109 (36): 14482-14487.
55. Schneiberg, I., Boscolo, D., Devoto, M., Marcilio-Silva, V., Dalmaso, C. A., Ribeiro, J. W., et al. (2020). Urbanization homogenizes the interactions of plant-frugivore bird networks. Urban Ecosystems, 23 (3): 457-470.
56. Seewagen, C. L. and Newhouse, M. (2018). Mass changes and energetic condition of grassland and shrubland songbirds during autumn stopovers at a reclaimed landfill in the New Jersey meadowlands. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology, 130 (2): 377-384.
57. Sekercioglu, C. H. (2006). Increasing awareness of avian ecological function. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 21 (8): 464-471.
58. Shannon, C. E. (1948). A mathematical theory of communication. The Bell System Technical Journal, 27 (3): 379-423.
59. Tallamy, D. W. and Shriver, W. G. (2021). Are declines in insects and insectivorous birds related? The Condor, 123 (1): duaa059.
60. Thapa, S., Paudel, S. and Dipak, B. (2008). An assessment on bird's diversity in Bagmati River Corridor. The Initiation, 2 (1): 34-40.
61. Timsina, N. P., Shrestha, A., Poudel, D. P. and Upadhyaya, R. (2020). Trend of urban growth in Nepal with a focus in Kathmandu Valley: A review of processes and drivers of change. Tomorrow's Cities Working Paper 001, UK Research and Innovation (UKRI) Global Challenges Research Fund (GCRF) Urban Disaster Risk Hub.
62. United Nation (2014). World urbanization prospects: The 2014 revision, highlights. United Nations-Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Retrieved from https://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/publications/files/wup2014-report.pdf
63. Veríssimo, D., Pongiluppi, T., Santos, M. C. M., Develey, P. F., Fraser, I., Smith, R. J., et al. (2014). Using a systematic approach to select flagship species for bird conservation. Conservation Biology, 28 (1): 269-277.
64. Wang, Y., Ding, P., Chen, S. and Zheng, G. (2013). Nestedness of bird assemblages on urban woodlots: Implications for conservation. Landscape and Urban Planning, 111: 59-67.
65. Withaningsih, S. and Alham, R. F. (2020). Diversity of bird species in the coffee agroforestry landscape: Case study in the Pangalengan Sub-district, Bandung District, West Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity, 21 (6): 2467-2480.
66. Yang, X., Tan, X., Chen, C. and Wang, Y. (2020). The influence of urban park characteristics on bird diversity in Nanjing, China. Avian Research, 11 (1): 1-9.
67. Zhang, Y., Jiang, C., Chen, S., Zhang, Y., Shi, H., Chen, B., et al. (2021). Effects of landscape attributes on campuses bird species richness and diversity, implications for eco-friendly urban planning. Sustainability, 13 (10): 5558.
68. Zhou, D. and Chu, L. (2012). How would size, age, human disturbance, and vegetation structure affect bird communities of urban parks in different seasons? Journal of Ornithology, 153 (4): 1101-1112.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

Send email to the article author


Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

  | Journal of Animal Diversity

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb