Volume 3, Issue 2 (6-2021)                   JAD 2021, 3(2): 26-41 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Kalki Y, Gonsalves C, Wylie D B, Sundaram K A K, Schramer T D. Annotated checklist of the snakes of Bengaluru Urban District, Karnataka, India with notes on their natural history, distribution, and population trends over the last 150 years. JAD. 2021; 3 (2) :26-41
URL: http://jad.lu.ac.ir/article-1-123-en.html
1- Madras Crocodile Bank Trust & Centre for Herpetology, Mamallapuram, Tamil Nadu, India , yatin.kalki@gmail.com
2- C-01, Good Earth Malhar Footprints, Kambipura Taluk, KengeriHobli, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
3- Illinois Natural History Survey, Prairie Research Institute, Champaign, Illinois 61820, USA
4- Wildlife Conservation Group, Bannerghatta, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
5- Department of Biological Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina, USA
Abstract:   (5435 Views)
Systematic and thorough studies of snake populations across large areas are rare in the tropics. Bengaluru city in southern India has not had a thorough checklist of snakes in over a century, during which time land-use changes, taxonomic revisions, and fluctuating reptile populations have left the current status of snakes of this region unclear. We combine data from snake rescues, visual encounter surveys, and other reliable records to generate a contemporary checklist of 33 snake species (15 of which are novel) present within the Bengaluru Urban District with comments on their apparent habitat preferences. We also provide evidence and insight on six additional species that have not been recorded but potentially occur within the limits of the district. Compared with the earlier checklist, all but 4 species (Naja naja, Ptyas mucosa, Daboia russelii, and Fowlea piscator) have shown considerable decline within city limits. Additionally, all of India’s “Big Four” medically significant venomous snake species (Naja naja, Bungarus caeruleus, Daboia russelii, and Echis carinatus) are found within the district. Naja naja and Daboia russelii appear to be well-adjusted to urbanization with serious ramifications for human-wildlife conflict and healthcare in the future as the majority of Indian snakebite deaths can be attributed to these two species. The population trajectory of Daboia russelii is of particular interest as it was classified as “not common” in the previous checklist, but it is presently one of the most abundant snake species in the area. Our study provides a new baseline that can be used to monitor ophidian population trends going forward.
Full-Text [PDF 2718 kb]   (983 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original Research Article | Subject: Species Diversity
Received: 2020/12/28 | Accepted: 2021/02/22 | Published: 2021/06/30

1. Ali, S. (1943). Birds of Mysore, Part 4. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 44 (1): 9–26.
2. Boback, S. M., Nafus, M. G., Yackel Adams, A. A. and Reed, R. N. (2020). Use of visual surveys and radiotelemetry reveals sources of detection bias for a cryptic snake at low densities. Ecosphere, 11 (1): 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.3000 [DOI]
3. Champion, S. H. and Seth, S. K. (1968). A revised survey of the forest types of India. Nilokheri, India, Government of India Press. 404 pp.
4. Chandrashekar, J. S., Babu, K. L. and Somashekar, R. K. (2003). Impact of urbanization on Bellandur Lake, Bangalore – A case study. Journal of Environmental Biology, 24 (3): 223–227.
5. Chernousova, N. F. (2001). Specific features of the dynamics of murine rodent communities under the effects of urbanization: dynamics of species composition and abundance. Russian Journal of Ecology, 32 (2): 122–125.
6. CITES. (2021). Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. Available at cites.org. [Accessed 20 March 2021].
7. Cyriac, V. P. and Kodandaramaiah, U. (2018). Digging their own macroevolutionary grave: fossoriality as an evolutionary dead end in snakes. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 31: 587–598. https://doi.org/10.1111/jeb.13248 [DOI]
8. Cyriac, V. P. and Kodandaramaiah, U. (2019). Conspicuous colours reduce predation rates in fossorial uropeltid snakes. PeerJ, 7: 1–18. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.7508 [DOI]
9. D’Souza, R. and Nagendra, H. (2011). Changes in Public Commons as a Consequence of Urbanization: The Agara Lake in Bangalore, India. Environmental Management, 47: 840–850.
10. Deepak V., Narayanan S., Mohapatra P. P., Dutta S. K., Melvinselvan G., Khan A., Mahlow K. and Tillack F. (2021). Revealing two centuries of confusion: new insights on nomenclature and systematic position of Argyrogena fasciolata (Shaw, 1802) (auctt.), with description of a new species from India (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae). Vertebrate Zoology, 71: 253–316. https://doi.org/10.3897/vz.71.e64345 [DOI]
11. District Administration. (2021). Bengaluru Urban District; bengaluruurban.nic.in [Accessed 10 March 2021]
12. ESRI (2011). ArcGIS Desktop: Release 10.8.1. Redlands, CA: Environmental Systems Research Institute.
13. Ganesh, S. R. and Arumugam, M. (2015). Distribution pattern, zoogeographic similarities and affinities of montane herpetofauna of Southern Eastern Ghats, peninsular India. Hyla, 2015 (2), 9–19.
14. Ganesh, S. R. and Vogel, G. (2018). Taxonomic reassessment of the Common Indian Wolf Snakes Lycodon aulicus (Linnaeus, 1758) complex (Squamata: Serpentes: Colubridae). Bonn Zoological Bulletin, 67 (1): 25–36.
15. Ganesh, S. R., Punith, K. G., Adhikari, O. D. and Achyuthan, N. S. (2021). A new species of shieldtail snake (Squamata: Uropeltidae: Uropeltis) from the Bengaluru uplands, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 13(6): 18508–18517.
16. Hassell, J. M., Begon, M., Ward, M. J. and Fevre, E. M. (2017). Urbanization and disease emergence: dynamics at the wildlife-livestock-human interface. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 32 (1): 55–67.
17. HerpMapper. (2020). HerpMapper - A Global Herp Atlas and Data Hub. Iowa, U.S.A. Available http://www.herpmapper.org [Accessed 10 November 2020].
18. iNaturalist (2020). Available at http://www.inaturalist.org [Accessed 10 November 2020].
19. IUCN (2021). The International :union: for Conservation of Nature Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-1. Available at iucnredlist.org. [Accessed 20 March 2021].
20. Jadhav, P. L., Chavan, S. P. and Trimukhe, H. S. (2018). Snake species diversity and their distribution in and around Nanded city, Maharashtra, India. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 6 (4): 1855–1860.
21. Kalki, Y. (2020). Naja naja (Indian Cobra). Diet. Herpetological Review, 51(1): 149.
22. Kalki, Y. (2021a). Notes on the Diet of the Checkered Keelback (Fowlea piscator) Including the First Record of Saurophagy. Reptiles & Amphibians, 28(2): 275–277.
23. Kalki, Y. (2021b). Ptyas mucosa (Oriental Ratsnake). Diet. Herpetological Review, 52(2): 431.
24. Kalki, Y. and Gowda, S. (2021). New locality records for Elachistodon westermanni and Psammophis longifrons in Karnataka, India. Reptiles & Amphibians, 28(1): 65–67.
25. Kalki, Y. and Weiss, M. (2020). Understanding the food habits of the green vine snake (Ahaetulla nasuta): a crowdsourced approach. Herpetology Notes, 13: 835-843.
26. Kalki, Y., Gowda, S., Agnivamshi, M., Singh, K., Patel, H. and Mirza, Z. (2020). On the taxonomy and systematics of the recently described Lycodon deccanensis Ganesh, Deuti, Punith, Achyuthan, Mallik, Adhikari, Vogel 2020 (Serpentes, Colubridae) from India. Evolutionary Systematics, 4(2020): 109-118. https://doi.org/10.3897/evolsyst.4.60570 [DOI]
27. Lokesh, S., Prakash, S., Chanderr, A., Gonsalves, C. and Kalki, Y. (2021). Additional Locality Records of the Nagarjunasagar Racer, Platyceps bholanathi (Colubridae), from Karnataka, India. Reptiles & Amphibians, 28(2): 285–287.
28. Macrotrends (2020). Bangalore, India Metro Area Population 1950-2020. Available at macrotrends.net [Accessed 10 November 2020].
29. Mallik, A. K., Srikanthan, A. N., Pal, S. P., D’Souza, P. M., Shankar, K. and Ganesh, S. R. (2020). Disentangling vines: a study of morphological crypsis and genetic divergence in vine snakes (Squamata: Colubridae: Ahaetulla) with the description of five new species from Peninsular India. Zootaxa, 4874 (1): 1–62. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4874.1.1 [DOI]
30. Mallik, A. K., Srikanthan, A. N., Ganesh, S. R., Vijaykumar, S. P., Campbell, P. D., Malhotra, A. and Shanker, K. (2021). Resolving pitfalls in pit viper systematics – A multi-criteria approach to species delimitation in pit vipers (Reptilia, Viperidae, Craspedocephalus) of Peninsular India reveals cryptic diversity. Vertebrate Zoology, 71(2021): 577–619.
31. Mohapatra, B., Warrel, D. A., Suraweera, W., Bhatia, P., Dhingra, N., Jotkar, R. M., Rodriguez, P. S., Mishra, K., Whitaker, R. and Jha, P., for the Million Deaths Study Collaborators. (2011). Snakebite mortality in India: a nationally representative mortality survey. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 5(4): p.e1018. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001018 [DOI]
32. Nagendra, H. and Gopal, D. (2010). Street trees in Bangalore: Density, diversity composition and distribution. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 9:129-137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2009.12.005 [DOI]
33. Nagendra, H. and Gopal, D. (2011). Tree diversity, distribution, history and change in urban parks: studies in Bangalore, India. Urban Ecosystems, 14. 211-223. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-010-0148-1 [DOI]
34. Nicholson, E. (1874). Indian snakes: an elementary treatise on ophiology with a descriptive catalogue of the snakes found in India and the adjoining countries. Madras: Higginbotham. 190 pp.
35. Olson, D. M., Dinerstein, E., Wikramanayake, E. D., Burgess, N. D., Powell, G. V. N., Underwood, E. C., D'amico, J. A., Itoua, I., Strand, H. E., Morrison, J. C., Loucks, C. J., Allnutt, T. F., Ricketts, T. H., Kura, Y., Lamoreux, J. F., Wettengel, W. W., Hedao, P. and Kassem, K. R. (2001). Terrestrial ecoregions of the world: A new map of life on earth. Bioscience, 51: 933–938. https://doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2001)051[093 3:TEOTWA]2.0.CO;2 [DOI]
36. Patel, H. and Vyas, R. (2019). Reptiles of Gujarat, India: Updated Checklist, Distribution, and Conservation Status. Herpetology Notes, 12: 765–777.
37. Pradhan, S., Mishra, D. and Sahu, K. R. (2014). An inventory and assessment of snake diversity of Gandhamardan hills range of western Orissa, India. International Journal of Pure and Applied Zoology, 2(3): 241–245.
38. Prasad, V. K., Verma, A. and Shahabuddin, G. (2018). An annotated checklist of the herpetofauna of the Rashtrapati Bhawan Estates, New Delhi, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 10(2): 11295–11302.
39. Rajendran, M. V. (1985). Studies in uropeltid snakes. Madurai: Madurai Kamaraj University. Ramachandran, S. and Raju, D. (2020). Photographic Field Guide Wildlife of South India. Chennai: Notion Press.
40. Ramachandra, T. V., Bharath, H. A., Vinay, S., Rao, G. R., Gouri, K., Tara, N. M. and Nupur, N. (2014). Trees of Bangalore. ENVIS Technical Report, 75. 1–94.
41. Savidge, J. (1988). Food Habits of Boiga irregularis, an Introduced Predator on Guam. Journal of Herpetology, 22(3), 275–282. https://doi.org/10.2307/1564150 [DOI]
42. Smith, H. M. and Taylor, E. H. (1945). An annotated checklist and key to the snakes of Mexico. Bulletin of the United States National Museum.
43. Uetz, P., Freed, P. and Hošek, J. (eds.) (2020). The Reptile Database, http://www.reptile-database.org, accessed [Accessed 10 March 2021].
44. Van Pham, A., Ziegler, T. and Nguyen, T. Q. (2020). New records and an updated checklist of snakes from Son La Province, Vietnam. Biodiversity Data Journal, 8.
45. Vattakaven, T., George, R., Balasubramanian, D., Réjou-Méchain, M., Muthusankar, G., Ramesh, B. and Prabhakar, R. (2016). India Biodiversity Portal: An integrated, interactive and participatory biodiversity informatics platform. Biodiversity Data Journal, 4: 1–15. https://doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.4.e10279 [DOI]
46. Whitaker, R. and Captain, A. (2004). Snakes of India - The Field Guide. Chengalpattu: Draco Books. 270 pp.
47. Wildlife Protection Act (1972). Parliament of India. https://legislative.gov.in/sites/default/files/A1972-53–0.pdf
48. World Meteorological Organization (2010). Bengaluru; worldweather.wmo.int [Accessed 10 March 2021].

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

  | Journal of Animal Diversity

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb